Islam Versus Christianity

Islamic Beliefs, Concepts and Terms Compared to Christianity



Islam Compared to Christianity
ISLAMCHRISTIANITY
Allah:

Before its Muslim use it was a pagan name: Al-Lah means "The God" while Al-Lat means "The Goddess" (Arab Trinity: Al-Uzza, Al-Lat and Menat).

The supreme God is exclusively monotheistic (without any offspring or son, Surah 4:171; 112:1-4) Surah 6:106; 4:171

The Islamic doctrine of Tauheed on God's absolute unity and self-reliance says: 'He is one: independent, unique, sovereign, set apart, and completely unified,' and is thus antithetical to the trinity. Muslims view Allah as being absolutely one, without partners or associates. Allah is also different from anything man can conceive.

The main characteristic of Allah revealed in the Qur'an is power, which drives all other characteristics and actions.

[Note: If Allah is so "other" that no thing can conceptually be compared or explain him, is he even discernable or imaginable?]

Allah has seven primary characteristics: 1) He has absolute unity (not a Trinity), 2) is all-seeing, 3)all-hearing, 4) all-speaking, 5) all-knowing, 6) all-willing, and 7) all-powerful.

Allah has many names, including Most Gracious, Most Merciful, the Preserver of Safety, and the Supreme, the Sovereign, the Source of Peace, the Guardian of Faith. Surah 59:22-24

Allah is NEVER described as loving or in terms of love. Surah 19:96; Muslim philosopher Al-Ghazali says "It is inconceivable that Allah should love mankind, because where love is there must be a lover ..."

All powerful: Surah 2:106

Creator: "He who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between in six days and is firmly established on the throne (of authority): Allah most gracious: Ask thou, then about Him of any acquainted (with such things)." Surah 25:59

Guides men to sin or not (Man's free will is limited, although he has the freedom to choose between right and wrong, he cannot change parts of his destiny that Allah has pre-determined.): Surah 32:13

Makes no covenants, can and does change his mind: Surah 16:101

No form of holiness is part of Allah's character.

Allah is unaffected by sin or prayer Hadith 5:715; 8:319; note: Hadith 5:266 where Muhammad said he does not know what Allah will do with him. [See: Allah: The God Of Islam; Islam: Goals, Insights and Background]

God:

The supreme being is a triune God (one Being manifested in 3 Persons: Father, Son, Holy Spirit) Deut 6:4; Gen 1:26; John 1:1-4; 2 Cor 13:14; Matt 28:19; John 14:16-23)

"For thou art great, and doest wondrous things: thou art God alone." Psa 86:10

"For I know that the Lord is great, and that our Lord is above all gods." Psalm 135:5

The fundamental characteristic behind all other aspects of the God revealed in the Holy Bible is his righteousness. All of God's actions proceed from this absolute holiness. (Isa 6, Psa 89:14; Ex 34:6-7)

God is deeply offended and grieved over man's sins (Gen 6:6; Judg 10:16; 1 John 1:6-7), calls men to return in repentance (Luke 24:47; Acts 17:30), requires penalty for sin (Psa 119:75; Rom 5:8; 6:23; 1 Tim 2:5-6)]

  • One true God (Deut 4:39; Isa 44:6, 8, 24; 45:5, 21; 46:9-10; 44:8; Jer 10:10; Hos 13:4; Acts 7:49-50; 1 Cor 8:4b-6)
  • God begins and ends human history (Gen 1:1; Psa 90:2; 93:2; Isa 44:6; Rev 22:13)
  • Attributes: (Job 37:23)
    • Good (Psa 25:8; 106:1; 118:1)
    • Eternal - Everlasting (Psa 41:13; 90:2; 106:48; 1 Tim 1:17)
    • Faithful - Covenant keeping (Deut 7:9, 12; 1 Kings 8:23; 2 Chr 6:14; Neh 1:5; Psa 89:28; Dan 9:4; James 1:17)
    • Holy (Ex 15:11; Lev 11:44-45; 19:2; 20:7, 26; 22:32; Deut 32:3-4; Josh 24:19; 1 Sam 2:2; Psa 11:4; 89:18; 99:3-5; 111:9; 145:7; Isa 5:16; 43:3, 15; etc.)
    • Infinite (Isa 26:4; 40:28; Rev 1:8)
    • Just - Righteous (Deut 32:4; Psa 7:9; 11:7; 33:5; 89:14; 99:3-5; 119:160; 140:12; Isa 45:21; Rev 15:3)
    • Loving - Kindness (Psa 25:6; 36:7, 10; 40:10-11; 51:1; 103:4; 138:2; Isa 63:7; Jer 29:11; 31:3; 1 John 4:8)
    • Merciful (Deut 4:31; Psa 25:6; 69:16; 102:4; 103:4, 17; 116:5; 140:12)
    • Omnipotent - All-powerful (Gen 17:1; 18:14; Deut 32:27; Pro 16:4; 26:10; Eccl 3:14; Jer 32:27; John 1:1-3; Acts 17:24; Col 1:16; 2:10; Heb 3:4; Rev 1:8)
    • Omnipresent - All-pervasive (Psa 139:7-11; Amos 9:1-4)
    • Omniscient - All-knowing (Psa 139:1-4, 23; 147:5; Isa 46:10; Heb 4:13)
    • Personal (2 Chr 6:14; Psa 40:5, 44:21; 139:17-18; Eze 34:11)
    • Sovereign - in control (Psa 47:2, 139:16, Acts 17:26; Eph 1:11; Jer 32:17; Rev 4:11)
    • Transcendent - exists beyond the physical universe; beyond our complete understanding (Job 11:7; 36:26; Isa 40:28; 55:8-9; 64:4; Rom 11:34; 1 Cor 2:16)
    • Truth (Num 23:19; Isa 45:19; Psa 12:6; 33:4; 119:140, 151, 160; 138:2; Pro 30:5; John 14:6; 17:17; Rom 3:4; 15:4; Heb 6:18; Rev 21:5; 22:1)
  • [See: How God Reveals Himself]

Allah not seeable or knowable:

Allah does not reveal himself to anyone in any way. He is separate from his creation. Allah is so superior to man that man cannot relate to him — the gulf between Creator and man is absolute and uncrossable, so Allah, Al-Wadud, is unknowable.

"God reveals only his will, not himself. He remains forever hidden". (Muslim theologian)

(Muslims thus understand God as being beyond virtually every quality and state that belongs to creatures. Allah is inaccessible. He cannot be known in his true nature, for he is beyond us. He is wholly other and totally different. This means that the Allah of the Qur'an is unknowable. Yet the Qur'an includes a verse that teaches that Allah is closer to man than his jugular vein (Surah 50:16). Still, Allah does not personally manifest himself to those he is close to.) [Also see: Qur'anic Treasures Hidden in Surah Ikhlas (Purity)

There is no relationship expected between God and man because to obey Allah is his whole duty. Allah's singular satisfaction is to make man feel they are Allah's slaves.

God reveals himself, knowable:

Jesus, the creator, as part of the trinity entered into his creation, entered into humanity. "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth. ... No man hath seen God at any time, the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him." (John 1:14, 18); Adam, where are you?

"But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me." John 15:26

"For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse." Rom 1:20

"God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds." Heb 1:1-2

Theophanies: to Adam (Genesis 3:8-21); to Abraham (Gen 18:2-33); to Jacob, at Beth-el (Gen 35:7,9); to Moses, in the flaming bush (Exo 3:2) and at Sinai (Exo 19:16-24;24:10); to Moses and Joshua (Deut 31:14,15); to Israel (Judg 2:1-5); to Gideon (Judg 6:11-24); to Solomon (1 Kgs 3:5;9:2;11:9; 2 Chr 1:7-12;7:12-22); to Isaiah (Isa 6:1-5); to Ezekiel (Eze 1:26-28) including the incarnation of Jesus (John 1:1 & 14-15, Matt 1:18, 21-23, Luke 1:35, 2:6-13, 1 John 1:1-4 and Heb 1:1-3) and the promised return of Jesus (John 14:3, 2 Thes 1:7-10; 1 Thes 4:14-18)

[Gen 12:7-9; 16:13; 17:1; 18:1-3; 28:11-19; 32:22-32, 28-30; Exo 19:20; 24:9-11; 33:18-34:8; Deut 31:15; Josh 5:14; 6:11, 21-22; 13:3, 18-22; Job 31:35; 2 Kgs 19:35; Zech 3:1-2; 12:8. The Lord also appears to people in visions (Gen 15:1; 46:2; Job 33:15; Psa 89:19; Dan 2:19; Acts 9:10; 18:9) and in dreams (Gen 20:3; 31:24; 1 Kgs 3:5; Matt 2:13) to reveal his plans for them or to unveil mysteries for the future.]

Uses suffering for man's good. (Rom 8:28)

Some Truths about God are revealed in nature (Job 12:7-9; Psa 19:1-4; Rom 1:20)

His Truth is revealed in the Word (Psa 119:160; Matt 22:29; John 17:17; 2 Tim 3:16-17)

Allah knows everything:

The Qur'an actually provides proof that Allah doesn't know all things. Allah's Guessing Game: Is Allah an All-Knowing God?

Trying to produce statements to the contrary would only demonstrate that the Qur'an contradicts itself. Read Mahmoud M. Ayoub's book The Qur'an and Its Interpreters — The House of Imran, Volume 1, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1984, pp. 73-79.

God knows everything:

"I know that thou canst do every thing, and that no thought can be withholden from thee." Job 42:2

"O lord, thou hast searched me, and known me. Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising, thou understandest my thought afar off. Thou compassest my path and my lying down, and art acquainted with all my ways. For there is not a word in my tongue, but, lo, O Lord, thou knowest it altogether." Psa 139:1-4

"Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard, that the everlasting God, the Lord, the Creator of the ends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is weary? there is no searching of his understanding." Isa 40:28

"Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure." Isa 46:10

"Behold, I am the Lord, the God of all flesh: is there any thing too hard for me?" Jer 32:27

"And the Spirit of the Lord fell upon me, and said unto me, Speak; Thus saith the Lord; Thus have ye said, O house of Israel: for I know the things that come into your mind, every one of them." Eze 11:5

See: Deut 31:21;
Allah's word is not true:

"The Qur'an says in several places that Allah is the best at deceiving people, and the Quran unashamedly calls Muhammad's god the best liar. Surah 3:54; 7:99; 8:30

"But they (the Jews) were deceptive, and Allah was deceptive, for Allah is the best of deceivers (Wamakaroo wamakara Allahu waAllahu khayru al-makireena)!" Surah 3:54; cf. 8:30

"Are they then secure from Allah's deception (makra Allahi)? None deemeth himself secure from Allah's deception (makra Allahi) save folk that perish." Surah 7:99

"So they schemed a scheme: and We schemed a scheme (Wamakaroo makran wamakarna makran), while they perceived not." Surah 27:50

Allah is NOT truthful:

Muslim scholar Dr. Mahmoud M. Ayoub agrees when he asks, "how the word makr (scheming or plotting), which implies deceitfulness or dishonesty, could be attributed to God." (Ibid., p. 165; italic emphasis mine)

Ayoub also cites one Muslim who actually boasted of Allah being the best conniver/deceiver/schemer etc., "Qurtubi observes that some scholars have considered the words 'best of schemers' to be one of God's beautiful names. Thus one would pray, 'O Best of Schemers, scheme for me!' Qurtubi also reports that the Prophet used to pray, 'O God, scheme for me, and do not scheme against me!' (Qurtubi, IV, pp. 98-99; cf. Zamakhshari, I, p. 366)." (Ibid., p. 166)

According to one of the earliest sources on the life of Muhammad, "Then he reminds the apostle of His favour towards him when the people plotted against him 'to kill him, or to wound him, or to drive him out; and they plotted and God plotted, and is the best of plotters.' i.e. I deceived them with My firm guile so that I delivered you from them." Surah 8:30 (The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, with introduction and notes by Alfred Guillaume [Oxford University Press, Karachi, Tenth impression, 1995], p. 323; emphasis mine) [More at: Allah - The Greatest Deceiver of them All]

[Note: One Quran was found in 1972 dated to 705-715A.D. See: Discovery of the oldest Quran]

[Note: Much of what the Qur'an and the hadith's teach has been false. Why then did the early texts of the Qur'an change to become very different later in the Quran? See: Abrogation]

God's word is always true:

God must reveal truth in the created things of the universe because He is holy. He cannot lie so that God's words and deeds are "true and righteous altogether."

"The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether." Psa 19:9

"Thy word is true from the beginning: and every one of thy righteous judgments endures for ever." Psa 119:160

"Every word of God is pure: he is a shield unto them that put their trust in him." Pro 30:5

"Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth." John 17:17

"If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful: he cannot deny himself." 2 Tim 2:13

"In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began." Titus 1:2

"But the word of the Lord endureth for ever. And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you." 1 Pet 1:25

"That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us." Heb 6:18

[Note the contrast with Satan: "Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it." John 8:44; "And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceives the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him." Rev 12:9; "For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ. And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light. Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also be transformed as the ministers of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works." 2 Cor 11:13-15 See: Satan]

Denies Holy Spirit:

Allah is neither a person nor spirit, Surah 42:11

Asserts that Gabriel is the holy spirit, Surah 16:102

Except in these places:
Jesus is strengthened by the Holy Spirit (spirit of the Holy), Surah 2:87; 5:110
Jesus was born by the power of the Holy Spirit, Surah 66:12

Holy Spirit:

God is a Spirit:

"God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth." John 4:24

"But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me." John 15:26

The Holy Spirit is God:

"But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me." John 15:26

Blasphemy is against God:

"Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come." Matt 12:31-32

The Holy spirit reveals truths and provides discernment, understanding, direction and special skill development.

Truths: "But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you." John 14:26

Discernment: "For the Lord giveth wisdom: out of his mouth cometh knowledge and understanding." Pro 2:6

Understanding: "But there is a spirit in man: and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding." Job 32:8; "Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts? or who hath given understanding to the heart?" Job 38:36

Direction: "So they, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia; and from thence they sailed to Cyprus." Acts 13:4

Special skill development: Exodus 31:2-11

The Holy Spirit transforms us from our former self into Christ's likeness. Matt 7:21-27; Rom 8:15; 1 Cor 2:12; Col 3:9; Eph 4:21-25; Titus 3:3-5

The person of the Holy Spirit is revealed in the scriptures as one who labors behind the scene, without drawing attention but diligently working, without being directly addressed yet bringing forth profound results. "The Lord by wisdom hath founded the earth; by understanding hath he established the heavens." (Pro 3:19); "He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven by his understanding." (Jer 51:15) This quiet presentation with bold results is shown in the following.

"Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come." (John 16:13)

"But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God." (1 Cor 2:10)

"For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God." (Rom 8:14)

[See: God loves sinners; The Holy Spirit]

Allah is not a father:

Allah "God begets not, nor is He begotten." Surah 112:3

[Note: Since the Surat al-Ikhlas says God is not a father and He has no son, how could mankind be in any manner sons of God? If Allah is not a father, a source of life for mankind, and mankind has not come from him as sons, is he then God at all to them?]

Asserts that Christians make God, Jesus and Mary into 3 Gods. Surah 5:116; 4:171

[Note: Historically some sects of Christians did offer this idolatrous worship to Mary. "This notion of the divinity of the Virgin Mary was also believed by some at the Council of Nice, who said there were two gods besides the Father viz. Christ and the virgin Mary, and were thence named Mariamites. Others imagined her to be exempt from humanity, and deified; which goes but little beyond the popish superstition in calling her the complement of the Trinity, as if it were imperfect without her. This foolish imagination is justly condemned in the Koran as idolatrous, and gave a handle to Mohammed to attack the Trinity itself." www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Contrad/External/marytrin.html]

God is a Father:

God is a father, a source of life for mankind, and mankind has come from him as sons, therefore he is God to all of them? Gen 1:26-27

Jesus calls God 'Father' and 'My Father,' Matt 7:21; 10:32-33; 11:27; Luke 22:29; John 2:16; etc.

"Say ye of him, whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God?" John 10:36

"And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." Matt 3:17; (Matt 17:5; Mark 1:11; 9:7; Luke 3:22; 9:35; 2 Pet 1:17)

"For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father." Rom 8:15

"That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ." Rom 15:6

"And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father." Gal 4:6

"To the saints and faithful brethren in Christ which are at Colosse: Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ." Col 1:2

"And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him." Col 3:17 (See: Matt 16:16, 8:26-27; Luke 4:38-41; 7:14-15; 8:24-25 John 5:23; 20:28; Note John 10:32; 5:19)

Islams' view of Man:

Makes no distinction of sin, man created weak (man is ignorant but good, just needs instruction): Surah 4:28; 7:19-25; 20:120-121

Man cannot fellowship with God. [See: Allah not seeable or knowable]

Man cannot influence Allah by prayer, Hadith 8:611

Man is tempted by Satan, Surah 7:16; 38:72-84; 25:29; 2:168; 34:20

Denies original sin, Surah 2:35-38.

Major and minor sins, Surah 4:31; Hadith 4:28

Thoughts are not sinful

Man must by his own effort of faith and good works please God.

Allah chooses whom he pleases to send to hell, Surah 32:13 [See: Hell]

Christianity's view of Man:

Man was created perfect but has sinned. Gen 3:16-1; Psa 14:3; 51:5; 53:3; Eccl 7:20; Rom 3:23

Man can fellowship with God. Gen 3:8; 1 John 1:6 [See: God reveals himself, knowable]

Man can influence God with prayer. Job 8:5; 1 Kings 8:30-34; 2 Kings 20:1-6, Psalm 142:1-8; Acts 12:5; 1 Thes 5:17; etc.

Man can do nothing acceptable to God. Psa 49:7-8; Jer 4:22; Rom 3:9-19

Man is under Satan's influence. Eph 6:11; 2 Cor 4:3-4

All sin violates God's standard of holiness (no distinction of major or minor sins). Eze 18:4, 20; Rom 3:23

Evil and lustful thoughts are sins. Matt 5:22; 5:27-28; Acts 8:22

Sin leads to death: Rom 6:23; Matt 10:28

God must help man by redemption. Psa 49:15; Titus 3:5; 1 John 1:7

[See: Christians Believe; The Basis Of The Gospel Message; The Basis of God's Judgment Upon All Mankind; The 12 Biggest Lies: Lie #1; Genesis and the Character of God]

Qur'an (Quran, Koran):

Islam's holy book — full title: "The Generous Qur'an."

The name of the Qur'an is actually Qur'an Kareem, which should be translated “Generous Qur'an” not “Holy Qur'an.” An important fact is that the Qur'an is not known and never has been known as the “Holy Qur'an” in Islamic countries. In the Arabic language, which is the Qur'an's official language and the language of the heavenly original (their claim), Muslims refer to the Qur'an as the Qur'an Karem (meaning generous*, kind, and gracious).

It is usually divided into 114 chapters or thirty parts, compiled from the memory of others (reciters) and written after Muhammad's death (632) during the period of the 3rd Caliphate of Uthman (644-656). Translations are considered inferior to the Arabic manuscripts.

It was dictated by Muhammad to his scribes to remember over 23 years. Long after his death the sayings were collected into various books. As many as eleven authors had competing claims to the one original text. [See: Allah claims to guard the Qur'an] The Qur'an verses are often independent from one another and dictated at different times in Muhammad's life yet placed side by side and are not interpreted through surrounding passages. Muslims use hadith called asbab-an-nuzal as historical commentary to make sense of texts.

Reputed to be complied over 22 years from AD 610-632. The suras (chapters) are not chronological but the longest is placed first. About 90 suras were revealed at Mecca and 24 at Medina to Muhammad with Surah 96 being the first revealed, all by the angel Gabriel, Surah 26:193-194. Surah 1 (the Fatiha) is often described as the essence of the Qur'an. The "mother of the Qur'an" (Ummu-L-Kitab) is said to be in heaven and written by Allah himself and it is an integral part of his being.

Discovery of the world's oldest quran in 1972 reveals startling facts. It is dated by the decorations of mosques outlining the pages of the document. These show it to be from the reign of Walid from AD 705-715. It also suggests the Quran to be less certain in its text than commonly asserted. It can be viewed at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=GrBfVISka70

The Qur'an asserts the injil (the gospels of the New Testament (NT)) is the word of Allah and thus to be believed. Surah 5:46-48 and 5:66-68 say to 'judge by the injil' showing it was currently available in that period. Surah 2:136; 3:3; 5:48; 29:46 confirm the known presence of both the Old Testament (OT) and NT of the Bible AND their integrity. [See: al-Nasafi's commentary on Surah al-Maida 5:43-48; www.answering-islam.org/Shamoun/bible_authentic2.htm]

Islam claims that 104 books have been given by Allah, yet only 4 remain:
1) Tourat (Torah) given to Moses, Surah 2:87; 2) Zabur (Psalms) given to David, Surah 4:163; 3) Injil (Gospel) given to Jesus, Surah 5:46-48; 4) and the Qur'an given to Muhammad, Surah 47:2

[Quote: "[T]he Qur'an contains little more than repetitive legends, contradictions, and corrupted selections that have been borrowed from the Bible." Usama Dakdok (translator), The Generous Qur'an, Usama Dakdok Publishing, LLC, Venice, FL, 2009]

[See: Allah claims to guard the Qur'an]
Bible:

Christianity's holy book — full title: "The Holy Bible."

Divine inspiration is claimed as the source of the Scriptures. It contains coherent narratives of historical accounts in both the Old and New Testaments which anyone can read and understand, since they are meant for all mankind.

It is a library of material, divided into 66 books (39 Old Testament (OT), 27 New Testament (NT) written by 40 or more authors (statesmen, shepherds, farmers, prophets) on 3 continents in three languages over 1500 years with one unified message. [Books of the Bible, More ...]

Translations are considered necessary to provide access to the scriptures in all languages as God's message for all people.

OT sections (written in Hebrew):
Law: Genesis - Deuteronomy;
History: Joshua - Esther;
The Writings: Job - Song of Solomon;
Major Prophets: Isaiah - Daniel; Minor Prophets: Hosea - Malachi

All OT parts teach about Jesus

"Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me." Psalm 40:7 & Heb 10:7

"Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me." John 5:39

"The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born." Matt 26:24

"And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behooved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day." Luke 24:46

NT sections (written in Koine Greek):
4 Gospels, Acts (of the Apostles by the Holy Spirit);
Epistles & Letters;
Revelation of John [Gospels written by: Fishermen, Tax collectors, Doctor, Religious scholar]

Prophecy came not by will of man, 2 Peter 1:21

"And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets." 1 Cor 14:32

Integrity of the Christian Scriptures: The Codex Sinaiticus, "a manuscript of the Christian Bible written in the middle of the fourth century, contains the earliest complete copy of the Christian New Testament. The hand-written text is in Greek. The New Testament appears in the original vernacular language (koine) and the Old Testament in the version, known as the Septuagint, that was adopted by early Greek-speaking Christians." codexsinaiticus.org/en/codex/

God's word guides us, Psalm 119:105

[See: Bible Presents high literary value]

The Qur'an distinctly speaks of the OT and NT as part of Allah's word.

"And remember we took your covenant and we raised above you (the towering height of Mount (Sinai) (saying): 'Hold firmly to what we have given you and bring (ever) to remembrance what is therein': Perchance ye may fear Allah." Surah 2:63 (See: 7:143-154: 7:163; 10:94;16:123-124)

"It is who sent down to thee (step by step), in truth, the book confirming what went before it; and he sent down the law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus)"; "Say: 'We believe in Allah, and what has been revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ismail; Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes, and in (the books) given to Moses, Jesus and the Prophets, from their Lord.'" (Surah 3:3, 84)

"We have revealed to you as we revealed to Noah and the prophets after him, and as we revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes; to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, Solomon and David, to whom we gave the Psalms." (Surah 4:163)

"We sent forth Jesus, the son of Mary, to follow in the footsteps of the prophets, confirming the Torah which was before him, and we gave him the Gospel with its guidance and light, confirmatory of the preceding Torah; a guidance and warning to those who fear God. Therefore let the people of the Gospel judge according to what God has sent down therein. Evildoers are those that do not judge according to God's revelations." (Surah 5:46)

"We sent down the Torah in which there is guidance and light." (Surah 5:44)

"If you are in doubt concerning what we revealed to you, then question those who read the Scripture that was before you." (Surah 10:94)

"Those who treat the Book, and the message we have sent through our apostles, as a lie, will know the truth hereafter: when, with chains and collars around their necks, they shall be dragged through scalding water and burned in the fire of hell." (Surah 40:71)

[Note: "The dilemma for the Muslim is quite apparent. To accept the Qur'an is to accept its testimony that the Holy Bible is the preserved Word of God. And yet to accept the Holy Bible is to reject both the Qur'an and Muhammad. ... [And] to attack the Holy Bible is to discredit the Qur'an which confirms the authority, availability, and authenticity of the previous scriptures. Either way, Muslims are in a no win situation." The Quran Confirms the Bible Has Never Been Corrupted; (Surah 5:12-15 Pickthall; Surah 3:113-114; Surah 7:159, 169-170 A. Yusuf Ali)]

Surah (Sura) — division of Qur'an:

A chapter of the Qur'an (usually 114 chapters).

[See: Allah claims to guard the Qur'an]

Book — divisions of Bible:

Divided into 66 books (see: list), with each book divided into 1 or more chapters and verses for convenience.

It was divided into chapters by Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, about 1228. The OT was given verses by R. Nathan in 1448. The NT was divided by Robert Stephanus in 1551. The entire Bible divided into chapters and verses first appeared in the Geneva Bible of 1560. [See: God is able to preserve the Manuscripts]

Allah claims to guard the Qur'an:

"Verily, we have sent down THE REMINDER (thikra 15:6), and, verily, we will guard it. And we sent before thee among the sects of those of yore." Surah 15:9-10 Palmer; 6:115; Hadith 26:192-197

As for Allah's books, THEY ARE STILL PRESERVED AND CANNOT BE CHANGED." Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement ... (Tafsir Ibn Kathir - Abridged, Volume 2, Parts 3, 4 & 5, Surat Al-Baqarah, Verse 253, to Surat An-Nisa, verse 147, abridged by a group of scholars under the supervision of Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, Riyadh, Houston, New York, Lahore; First Edition: March 2000], p. 196; capital emphasis ours).

Many Muslim's believe the Qur'an is exactly as dictated to Muhammad and not ever changed. [See: Abrogation] This misconception is contradicted by "Hadith and the History of the Qur'an" in Surah (chapter) 42. Regarding the origin of the text of the Mushaf (Qur'an), in the first four centuries of Hegira (after Muhammad immigrated to Medina), many different versions of the one and only sacred(?) text handed down from Allah by the angel Gabriel were written and used. According to the Islamic Encyclopedia, as many as eleven authors had competing claims to the one original text. Having reached a total of thirty-one versions of the same divinely(?) given Qur'an, one author named Osman Ebn Affan took it upon himself to burn all the written Qur'ans except his own version, which came to be the official Qur'an as known today. Sahih Bukhari 6.61; 9.84.59; The 3rd Caliph, Uthman (644-656), established the official text of the Qur'an and had the other competing versions burned.

Ubay ibn Ka'b had 116 chapters while the Ibn Mas'ud had only 111 chapters and Ubay had more than 111 chapters in the Qur'an.

Sahih Bukhari: The Qur'an was given in pieces to others who remember it in various forms, and some wrote it down as they remembered it. The Qur'an was a collection of disparate verbally recited sections and written fragments which were later assembled by Zaid ibn Thabit and collated into one text, but he left out a small portion from his version of the assembled Qur'an. Later after many disputed the many differences, khalifa Uthman ordered the Qur'an to be standardized and other versions to be collected and burned. And this version did not include sections that Ubay ibn Ka'b (whom Muhammad identified as the best reciter of the Qur'an) used to recite.

This is confirmed in the writings of Sahih Muslim (Book 31, Number 6024) and in the Mishkat-ul-Masabih (an expanded version of Al-Baghawi's Masabih al-Sunnah by Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah Khatib Al-Tabrizi). [See: The Collection Of The Quran and The Compilation of the Qur'an, Another Open Challenge to Muslims Pt. 1 of 3]

[Note: The Qur'an scholars divide the Qur'anic verses into two classes: qati—definitive, no speculation and zanni—speculative. Even Professor Hashim Kamali, the eminent Sharia expert of Islamic Jurisprudence and currently the Professor of Islamic Law and Jurisprudence at International Islamic University Malaysia, admits that the Qur'an is ambiguous. (Hashim Kamali, p. 33.) See: Sharia]

Do you know about the Qur'an changing its content implying Allah's word was false and should be changed? This information about the satanic verses and the circumstances surrounding their revelation comes from the reputable Muslim accounts of Ali al-Tabari and Ibn Sa'd. "Early Muslim historians, in an astounding display of honesty and integrity, admitted that their prophet had delivered the Satanic Verses to his listeners." The Deuteronomy Deductions

Original text: Surah 53:19. Have you thought of Al-Lat and Al-'Uzza, 20 and Manat, the third of the 21 These are intermediaries exalted whose intercession is to be hoped for. 22 Such as they do not forget the ayats. Verses 21-22 are not in the present Koran, where this "replacement or corrected" text now is found:

21 Is it the male for you, and female for him? 22 That would have been a crooked division! (The Satanic Verses)

[See: Qur'an; Abrogation; The Qur'an Confirms the Bible Has Never Been Corrupted]

God is able to preserve the Manuscripts:

A physical copy of text, in part or the whole.

"Judaism already had developed a venerable tradition of carefully copying, maintaining and preserving its written texts. The Jewish sopherim, or scribes, held such a high regard for the Scriptures as the Word of God that they regarded the copying of any error as a sin. No imperfection, no matter how small, was tolerated. ... The successors to this meticulous scribal tradition were Jewish biblical scholars known as the Masoretes. ... The Masoretes developed a system of checks to ensure that every copy was as nearly perfect as humanly possible." (Copying the Old and New Testament manuscripts, Dr. Kenneth Barker)

Old Testament manuscripts exist from 800 BC and New Testament manuscripts exist from the 2nd century and many from the 3rd century AD, including 2 complete NT manuscripts from early 4th century. Early Christians made copies and sent them on to others groups who did likewise. This manner of proliferation refutes central control and planned alterations of the text. There are about 44,000 scriptures or fragments from the Bible or with quotes from the Bible, older than AD 610.

The 4 Gospels, Epistles and Letters were written mid first century while eyewitnesses could contribute and validate the written material. The Revelation of John was written circa AD 95-97. Early Church Fathers on the Authorship of the NT Gospels

God promises to preserve His words:

"So shall my word be that goes forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it." Isa 55:11

"Then said the Lord unto me, Thou hast well seen: for I will hasten my word to perform it." Jer 1:12

"The words of the LORD are pure words: as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times. Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever." Psalms 12:6-7

You shall not add or take away, says God:

"Now therefore hearken, O Israel, unto the statutes and unto the judgments, which I teach you, for to do them, that ye may live, and go in and possess the land which the LORD God of your fathers giveth you. Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you." Deut 4:1-2

God cares about every one of His words:

"Every word of God is pure: he is a shield unto them that put their trust in him. Add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar." Pro 30:5-6

God's words will never pass away:

"Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away." (Jesus Christ, Son of God) Mark 13:31

God will curse those who change His Word:

"For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book." Rev 22:18-19 [See: Prophecy Claims]

The textual preservation of the Qur'an claimed in Surah 15:9 (and "Belief in Divine Books," www.WhyIslam.org) fails with the following: Sahih Bukhari vol. 6, book 61; 9.84.59; Sahih Muslim 5.2286; Sunan ibn Majah 1944; disparate versions exist: Ubay's Qur'an has 116 chpts.; Zaid's 114 chpts.; Ibn Mas'ud's has 11 chpts. per Suyuti, al Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'an; Ibn Abi Daud, Kitab al-Masahif; Ibn Abi Daud Kitab al Masahif. Some even argued that Allah intended the present results.

There are twenty cases in the Qur'an where one revelation contradicts another previous revelation. (Example: changing the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to the Kaaba, Surah 2:142-3.) And many more problems are known, even a missing Surah (Sahih Muslim 5:2286). (Exposing the Truth about the Qur'an: The Revelation of Error, Vol 1 & 2, Usama K. Dakdok, Usama Dakdok Publishing, LLC, Venice FL, 2013)

The early Muslim polemicists, such as 'Ali al-Tabari, the Zaydi al-Qasim ibn Ibrahim, and Al-Hasan ibn Ayyub, applied the concept of tahrif al-ma'na to the Christian as well as Jewish Scriptures. The later polemicists of the Ash'arite school such as AL-BAQILLANI, AL-GHAZALI, and FAKR AL-DIN AL-RAZI, approached the Bible AS BASICALLY SOUND IN ITS TEXT but misinterpreted by Christians and Jews.

Islam asserts the corruption of the Christian Scriptures (Surah 2:75; Hadith 9:614), but the first Muslims believed that Holy Bible is the inspired and preserved Word of God. The Qur'an Confirms the Bible Has Never Been Corrupted

However, the Qur'an asserts that "The Holy Bible" must exist and be intact (i.e. the integrity of the Holy Bible). Follow this argument below:

1. Allah has promised to preserve the Reminder given to Muhammad. Surah 15:2-9

2. The Reminder is the Qur'an. Surah 15:9

3. Allah claims that the Qur'an is in the previous scriptures, i.e. the Holy Bible. (Surah 15:2-11, "the context supports the view that the author of the Qur'an wanted to highlight the point of Allah protecting the entire Revelation which he gave to all his prophets, to the detriment of the unbelievers who mocked and slandered his messengers and who wanted nothing more than to destroy their Message."); (the Torah and Gospel were referred to as Remembrance and this is supported by appealing to Surah 16:43, 21:7, 21:48, 21:105 and 40:53-54)

4. Therefore, the Holy Bible, which supposedly contains the Qur'an, has also been preserved.

5. To claim otherwise means that Allah failed to preserve the Qur'an since the scriptures that contained it have been corrupted. Allah's Promise to Preserve the Bible

The Muslim scholar Ibn Ishaq provides additional verification that Muhammad believed in the purity of the Holy Bible.

"When the Christians of Najran came to the apostle the Jewish rabbis came also and they disputed one with the other before the apostle. Rafi' said, 'You have no standing,' and he denied Jesus and the Gospel; and a Christian said to the Jews, 'You have no standing' and he denied that Moses was a prophet and denied the Torah. So God sent down concerning them: 'The Jews say the Christians have no standing; and the Christians say that the Jews have no standing, and yet they read the scriptures. They do not know what they are talking about. God will judge between them on the day of resurrection concerning their controversy,' i.e. each one reads IN HIS BOOK THE CONFIRMATION OF WHAT HE DENIES, so that the Jews deny Jesus though THEY HAVE THE TORAH in which God required them BY THE WORD OF MOSES TO HOLD JESUS TRUE; while IN THE GOSPEL IS WHAT JESUS BROUGHT IN CONFIRMATION OF MOSES AND THE TORAH HE BROUGHT FROM GOD: so each one denies WHAT IS IN THE HAND OF THE OTHER." (Ishaq, Life Of Muhammad, trans. Alfred Guillaume [Oxford University Press, Karachi], p. 258; capital emphasis ours)

[Note: All of the multiple recitations of the same verse, missing verses, missing surahs, disputes over the canon, and controlled destruction of various competing texts are documented by Muslim scholars. Is this a perfect, unchanged, complete, reliable, and inspired text guarded by Allah? No, not at all! Beware such flimsy assertions as, "Allah wills it" to be so! See: Qur'an]

Claims inimitability of Qur'an:

primarily for it literary excellence.


The challenge offered: no one can imitate its eloquence.


The response: the book, Al-Furqan al-Haqq, meaning "the true measure of discernment," (this title itself is a rebuttal challenge), writing Christian teachings in Quranic style so well that some who recited it aloud were thanked by Muslims for having recited the Qur'an itself.

Bible Presents high literary value:

"The Bible is central to the understanding of any literature. (Cf. Gabel .et al 2006:1-2). There is perhaps no other text that enjoys the same universal significance as the Bible. The Bible is a text whose interpretation and criticism whether literary, cultural or historical, has elicited composite behaviour from people of different races, thereby making [the] biblical subject have global structure and contextualization. The biblical text has been appreciated for quite a long time by readers and scholars as a literally manifested - book format with a theological orientation."

"The Bible is consistently rooted in the concrete realities of human life in the world, and a literary approach is sensitive to this experiential dimension. Whereas history tells us what happened in the past, literature tells us what is happening. Because literature presents universal human experience, it is relevant all the time."

"While the Bible is fundamentally a devotional, and by implication, a spiritual book, its literary value is clearly not in doubt. The Bible has sufficient artistic materials to justify its appreciation as a literary masterpiece. There are many factors that make the Bible fit for a literary enquiry."

"The study has implications for scholars and teachers of literature, religion and culture. The study has discovered that there are many uses to which the Bible can be put. These include economic, theological, philosophical, literary, linguistic and sociological and argues that a multi-disciplinary approach is central to the realization of this objective. As a way of strengthening the value of biblical education, students of the humanities should be encouraged to take Bible Knowledge as a course of study at the secondary and post-secondary levels." The Literary Value of the Bible, D.Ighile, The Literary Value of the Bible, accessed 1/27/2016.

Prophecy Claims:

Muslims claim the Qur'an has fulfilled prophecies, mathematical patterns, scientific truths, and textual preservation. The factual response:

  • No compelling prophecies are contained in the Qur'an;
  • No mathematical patterns are found beyond those common to other literature (Many purported mathematical patterns are fudged data, and others are simple present in written texts, including online message boards.);
  • No real advanced scientific truths are in the Qur'an in spite of Bucailleism, which has problems with exegesis, reasoning, and scholarship (Surah 23:13-14; 86:6-7). Its scientific claims are very disputed and not scientific at best, (Surah 23:13-14). [The mesoderm of the embryo differentiates into bone and flesh at the same time, (Surah 86:6-7); sperm does not gush "from between the backbone and the ribs."]
  • Specific prophesies are conspicuously absent from the the Qur'an (and 25 other religious books that claim to be scripture, including, the Book of Mormon, the Hindu Vedas, and Buddhist writings).
  • The textual preservation of Surah 15:9 (and "Belief in Divine Books," www.WhyIslam.org) fails with the following: Sahih Bukhari vol. 6, book 61; 9.84.59; Sahih Muslim 5.2286; Sunan ibn Majah 1944; disparate versions exist: Ubay's Qur'an has 116 chpts.; Zaid's 114 chpts.; Ibn Mas'ud's has 11 chpts. per Suyuti, al Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'an; Ibn Abi Daud, Kitab al-Masahif; Ibn Abi Daud Kitab al Masahif. Some even argued that Allah intended the present results.
Prophecy Claims:

"And he said, Hear now my words: If there be a prophet among you, I the Lord will make myself known unto him in a vision, and will speak unto him in a dream." Num 12:6

"When a prophet speaketh in the name of the Lord, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the Lord hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him." Deut 18:22

"So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it." Isa 55:11

"The prophet that hath a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that hath my word, let him speak my word faithfully. What is the chaff to the wheat? saith the Lord." Jer 23:28

The Bible has about 1500 Old Testament prophesies of minute detail relating to people, cities, nations or events, most of which have already been fulfilled. The most compelling of evidences demonstrating that the Bible is the word of God is its unswerving ability to accurately predict future events, often in minute details. The most obvious testimony to the accuracy of Biblical prophecy is provided by the people and nation of Israel.

"The fulfillment of hundreds of specific prophecies in the ancient and modern history of the Jewish people is God's great sign to mankind—a sign that no one can mistake or deny. ... Jewish history stands as a universal visible monument to God's existence." Dave Hunt, How Close Are We?, 1993, Harvest House Publishers, pg 27, 29.

One book, 100 Prophecies, explains how Bible prophecies have been fulfilled in history. [See: www.100prophecies.org/]

"So What Does Fulfilled Prophecy Prove? The ancient Jews were careful to use Prophecy as a measuring stick. If someone claimed to be a prophet, yet his predictions did not come true, he was abandoned and his writings did not make it into the canon of scripture. Moses was careful to set this high bar for prophets." The Old Testament is Filled with Fulfilled Prophecy

"A Simple Litmus Test"

"There are many ways to verify the reliability of scripture from both internal evidences of transmission and agreement, to external confirmation through archeology and science. But perhaps the most persuasive argument can be found in the area of prophecy. If a book accurately and repeatedly predicts the future, it can safely be said that something special is going on, perhaps even something supernatural. And there are so many prophecies in the scriptures that it should be easy to take a look and decide if the Bible is supernatural."

"There Are So Many Fulfilled Prophecies!"

"In fact, there are so many fulfilled prophecies in the Bible that it is hard to know where to begin! A simple search on the internet will provide you with literally hundreds of sites listing a multitude of fulfilled prophecies in both the Old and New Testaments." The Old Testament is Filled with Fulfilled Prophecy, Jim Wallace

There are many prophecies about the Messiah which are fulfilled by Jesus during his life and ministry. For a list of 112 Old Testament prophecies fulfilled by Jesus see: Messianic Prophecies. And for many more about his death and resurrection see: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Hadiths:

Muhammad's words or actions recorded in tradition, though not equated to words of the Qur'an, provide a complete guide to living for Muslims. Hadiths are often followed above the Qur'an as in Surah 4:15-16 & 24:2 versus Hadith 8:816; and Hadith 8:120 [See: Ministry of Muhammad]

Sirah and Hadiths comprise stories of Muhammad's life and teachings as compiled over several generations. The context of hadiths are given in historical commentaries called asbab-an-nuzul. With each hadith separated from the next showing there is no contextual continuity in the Qur'an. Only the Joseph story is a whole piece (though not true to the Biblical Old Testament account), all other accounts of events are fractured pieces.


The six accepted compilations of hadiths (called Sahih Sittah) in order of importance by author: Sahih Bukhari (Muhammad al-Bukhari), Sahih Muslim (Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj al-Naysaburi), Sunan Abu Dawud (Abu Dawud Sulayman ibn al-Ash'ath as-Sijistani), Sunan Tirmidhi (Jami at-Tirmidhi), Sunan Ibn Majah (Ibn Majah al-Qazvini), Sunan Nisai (Ahmad an-Nasa'i).

Sahih Bukhari: (AD 811-876) compiled the most trustworthy collection of hadiths more than 200 years after Muhammad's death, and this compilation is accepted by the majority Sunni.

The isnâd (chain of narrators) is the chain of transmission of the text's words (matn) until written down that is used to validate each of the hadiths.

The hadiths portray Muhammad in raw, unflattering terms, including revealing his suicide attempts (Sahih Bukhari 9:111), where he is ordered to kill unbelievers (hadith 1:24-25), and the beheading of more than 500 men and boys after the Battle of the Trench and the selling of their wives and children into slavery. (Nabeel Qureshi, Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus, 2014 Grand Rapids, MI, Zondervan, 215-218; A. Guillaume, trans., The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 464)

"According to Wael Hallaq the central issue with hadith is it's authenticity. From the legal theoretician's point of view, hadiths can be divided into mutawatir (transmitted via numerous chains of narrators) and ahad (anything that is not mutawatir). The medieval scholar Al-Nawawi argued that any non-mutawatir hadith is only probable and can not reach the level of certainty that a mutawatir hadith can. However scholars like Ibn al-Salah (d. 1245 CE), al-Ansari (d. 1707 CE), and Ibn 'Abd al-Shakur (d. 1810 CE) found "no more than eight or nine" hadiths that fell into the mutawatir category." [Hallaq, Wael (1999). "The Authenticity of Prophetic Hadith: A Pseudo-Problem". Studia Islamica 89: 75-90. Retrieved 19 November 2015 - via JSTOR] Criticism of Hadith: Authenticity

Gospels:

Jesus Christ's words and actions recorded by his disciples shortly after his death, resurrection and ascension while eyewitnesses were living to validate the writings. (Luke 1:1-3)

Papias, writing around AD 100, wrote that the Gospel of Mark is based upon Peter's eyewitness testimony. Luke writes in the Gospel of Luke that he interviewed people to get the whole story carefully. He is the most profoundly accurate historian of antiquity.

Even the Muslim scholar Ibn Ishaq claims that the Apostle John wrote down the Gospel of Jesus. He provides additional verification that Muhammad believed in the purity of the Holy Bible.

Authors: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John

These are the authors of the 4 Gospels named after them.

The early church fathers Irenaeus, Tertullian, Origen, and Eusebius all name Matthew as the author of the gospel attributed to him. In fact Irenaeus, who knew Polycarp (disciple of John) personally, identifies all four gospel authors by name. Papias identifies by name both Matthew and Mark, and the casual way he does so suggests these authors were well known.

For Mark, the best evidence comes from Papias, who stated:

"Mark having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately whatsoever he remembered. It was not, however, in exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him. But afterwards, as I said, he accompanied Peter, who accommodated his instructions to the necessities [of his hearers], but with no intention of giving a regular narrative of the Lord's sayings. Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them. For of one thing he took especial care, not to omit anything he had heard, and not to put anything fictitious into the statements. Matthew put together the oracles [of the Lord] in the Hebrew language, and each one interpreted them as best he could." Other early church leaders also attribute Mark's gospel to him, such as Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Jerome, and Eusebius.

The authorship of Luke is attested to by Origen, Eusebius, Athanasius, Gregory, Nazianze, and Jerome. Internal evidence also suggests Luke as the author: 1) The author of Luke and Acts are one and the same (Luke 1:1-4, see Acts 1:1-3 and the use of Theophilus, his mention of the former account); 2) The author of Luke/Acts joined Paul as demonstrated by the use of the first person plural 'we' in Acts 16 and 20; and 3) Luke is named by and accompanied Paul on his second and third missionary journey and was with him during his first imprisonment (Col 4:14, Philemon 1:24) and second imprisonment (2 Tim. 4:11). These three, taken together, point to Luke as the author of both the third gospel and the book of Acts.

Louis Berkhof in his work New Testament Introduction states, "The voice of antiquity is all but unanimous in ascribing the fourth Gospel to John. The Monarchian sect, called by Epiphanius, "the Alogi," forms the only exception." As noted above, both Irenaeus and Polycarp (according to Eusebius) attribute John's gospel account to him. Berkhof further provides the pieces of internal evidence pointing to John as the author. radicaltruth.net/index.php/learn/radical-truth-christianity/66-who-wrote-the-gospels

Abrogation:

The doctrine of later Quranic verses superceeding earier verses by annulling, repealing or rescinding prior verses. Surah 2:106, 16:101

Most sects promote the doctrine of abrogation, Surah 2:16 & 16:101 (Nabeel Qureshi, Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus, 2014 Grand Rapids, MI, Zondervan, 97.) Various suggest from 5 to 500 verses are replaced. There is at least 20 cases in the Qur'an where one revelation contradicts or abrogates a previous revelation. [See: Qur'an; Allah claims to guard the Qur'an]

The Ahmadi (Ahmadiyya) sect denies the doctrine of abrogation asserting that if true then Allah is not giving a consistent message nor would the denied verses be the eternal word of God. However the hadiths are full of accounts of abrogation.

[Note: "If God has a history of abrogating (changing) his own revelations as is done in the Qur'an, then how can we be certain he will not abrogate it again in the future? If Allah can abrogate his eternal speech, how can you trust him with your eternal soul?" Mohammad, New York, NY]

[Note: One Quran was found in 1972 dated to 705-715A.D. which also suggests the Quran to be less certain in its text than commonly asserted. It can be viewed at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=GrBfVISka70 See: Discovery of the oldest Quran]

Continuity:

The topic or concept addressed in one verse is expanded or clarified in another. Most doctrines have their origins in the Book of Genesis.

No contradictions in the original manuscripts:

"Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled." Matt 5:17-18

"If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken." John 10:35

"And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me." Luke 24:44

Infidels:

Any who do not submit to the will of Allah (Islamic political rule). [See: Jihad; The Case Against Islam and Islam: Goals, Insights and Background]

The Abode of Islam is where the dominate group is Islamic control and the Abode of War is where Islam seeks to prevail (where the "infidel" rules). Surah 5:33; 2:191-193; 2:244; 2:216; 3:56; 3:151; etc.

Unbelievers:

Those who do not recognize Jesus as God's son, the crucified and resurrected Savior of mankind.

"... Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel." Mark 1:14-15; "When Jesus heard it, he saith unto them, They that are whole have no need of the physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance." Mark 2:17; Luke 5:32; "For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all." Rom 11:32; "For godly sorrow works repentance to salvation not to be repented of: but the sorrow of the world works death." 2 Cor 7:10

Aqeedah:

deeply held Islamic beliefs

See: Confession

Masjid:

Mosque, the place of assembly for ritual and other prayers. Often used for Islamic teaching and fellowship. [See: Salaat]

Church:

It refers both to the body of Christian believers and the building for assembly. 1 Cor 16:19; Acts 2:47; 20:28, etc.

The assembly is used for teaching, prayer, encouragement, fellowship, community outreach, etc.

Two major branches:

Sunni Islam (4 divisions, ~ 80% of Islam) and Shia (3 divisions, ~ 10-15% of Islam) plus other smaller divisions or sects (~ 5-10% of Islam)

The Ahmadi (Ahmadiyya) sect are the most peaceful (Surah 2:62; 2:256; 29:46), denouncing hatred of others, murder of others, and war to promote Islam. The Ahmadi sect denies the doctrine of abrogation asserting that if true then Allah is not giving a consistent message nor would the denied verses be the eternal word of God. However the hadiths are full of accounts of abrogation.

[Note: Many Moslems assert that the Ahmadi sect started by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as a subordinate prophet is false and those of this sect are not Muslim based upon Surah 33:40. Since many of this sect are killed throughout Islam as false Muslims, this makes Islam a religion of bloodshed and violence against their own. (Nabeel Qureshi, Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus, 2014 Grand Rapids, MI, Zondervan, p.55.)]

Six major branches:

In order of size: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Oriental Orthodoxy, and the Assyrian Church of the East.

Catholicism: Roman & Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodoxy (Russian, Greek, Oriental), Anglicanism, (some include Anglicans amongst Protestants), Assyrian Church of the East is much smaller.

Protestantism: (Anglican, Anabaptist, and Reformed divisions) include diverse groups such as Adventists, Anabaptists, Baptists, Binitarians, Charismatics, Congregationalists, Evangelicals, Holiness churches, Lutherans, Methodists, Moravians, Pentecostals, Presbyterians, Reformed, and Unitarians (depending on one's classification scheme), plus numerous smaller divisions or sects in them (Restorationism: Churches of Christ, African Initiated Churches, etc.; Messianic Jews; Syrian Christians; Quakerism; Independents; etc.), More ...

Khalifa: (caliph)

Supreme ruler over Muslims; usually the title is used to refer to one of Muhammad's four successors:

1st - Abu Bakr (the father of Muhammad's wife A'isha) is elected, and takes the title 'khalifat rasul-Allah';

2nd - Umar ibn al-Khattab (Omar, alt sp., another father-in-law of Muhammad);

3rd - Uthman ibn Affan (Othman, alt sp., son-in-law of Muhammad) and

4th - Ali ibn Abi Talib (a cousin of Muhammad and the husband of Muhammad's daughter Fatima.

[Note: This provokes the only major sectarian split in the history of Islam, between Sunni and Shi'a.]

Jesus Christ:

Head over all things to the church.

"And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church, Which is his body, the fulness of him that fills all in all." (Eph 1:19-23);

"And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence." (Col 1:18)

Islam denigrates unbelievers:

"And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the Mushriqs (pagans, polytheists) wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful." Surah 9:5 [Sahih International]

"Obey Allah and the Apostle; but if they turn back, then surely Allah does not love the unbelievers." Surah 3:32

Says that Allah transformed Jews of the past into apes and pigs, Surah 5:60. This is echoed by verses 7:166 and 2:65.

Says they are ignorant, Surah 6:111

"Surely the vilest of animals in Allah's sight are those who disbelieve, then they would not believe." Surah 8:55

Compares unbelievers to "panting dogs" with regard to their idiocy and worthlessness, Surah 7:176

Says they are like "cattle" only worse, Surah 7:179

Says the unbelievers are unclean, Surah 9:28

Says they are helpers of the devil, Surah 23:55

Says that unbelieving men are worse than the demons who believe in Muhammad, Surah 46:29-35

"Those who disbelieve from among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists, will be in Hell-Fire, to dwell therein (for aye). They are the worst of creatures." Surah 98:6

Says that Muhammad believed rats to be "mutated Jews", Hadith (Bukhari 54:524), confirmed by Sahih Muslim 7135 and 7136).

Christianity values unbelievers:

They are valuable to God because He made them, loves them and seeks to have them repent, be transformed and receive eternal life. [See: God; Confession; Witnessing; Affirms substitutionary atonement; Unbelievers; Faith based Salvation]

"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." John 3:16

"And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world." John 12:47

"Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved)." Eph 2:3-5

"Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God, even our Father, which hath loved us, and hath given us everlasting consolation and good hope through grace." 2 Thes 2:16

"This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief." 1 Tim 1:15

"For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost." Titus 3:3-5

"Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins." 1 John 4:10

[Note: The questions that should be asked are: "'Why do people hate Christ when all He did was love them? Why do people hate Christians, when all they do is give and serve and offer help to a sinful world?' Christian charity is unlike any other in the history of mankind. It is given out of love to everyone, even those who are repulsive and abusive to them. The question to ask is why do they do this? The answer to this question puts things in the correct perspective. They are showing the love of Christ to a sinful world. ... God loves everyone, but condemns sin. Naming sin and warning people about sin is not hateful. ... Pointing out sinful behavior, warning of its condemnation, and offering help for deliverance from sin is no less loving than warning and offering help to the sexually promiscuous and the drug abusers. It is an act of loving help. The sacrifice of time and resources to help others escape sin is not an act of hate. It is an act of love." (http://ltia.org)]

Predestination:

Teaches that each person is chosen/made good or evil. Hadith 8:611; Surah 32:13

[Note: What then is the purpose of believing if Allah has chosen or made the individual good or evil without any personal choice? Surah 113:1-2; 7:16; See: Works based Salvation]

Predestination:

Predetermined not to salvation but for believers, as sons of God, to be made like unto Christ Jesus. Rom 12:1-3

"For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren." Rom 8:29

"Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will. ... In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his own will." Eph 1:5, 11

Hell:

These are the primary verses describing hell in the Qur'an: Surah 14:15-17; 22:19-21; 78:17-30 while the Hadiths describe the seven levels in the crater of hell. Surah 2:167 and 5:36-37 declares there is no second chance. [More at: What the Quran says about Hell; Description of hell in islam]

"...fear the Fire whose fuel is men and stones, which is prepared for those who reject Faith." Surah 2:24

"...Enough is Hell for a burning fire. Those who reject Our Signs, We shall soon cast into the Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the penalty. For Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise." Surah 4:55-56

"But he whose balance (of good deeds) is found to be light, will have his home in a (bottomless) Pit. And what will explain to you what this is? A Fire blazing fiercely!" Surah 101:8-11

In Islam, those who refuse to go to battle (jihad), flee or retreat from a battle go to hell. Surah 8:16 and 9:49

Allah chooses whom he pleases to send to hell, Surah 32:13 [Hell: Surah 3:145; 18:97; 14:48-51; 22:19-22; 7:50; Sahih Bukhari 1:2:28 Narrated Ibn 'Abbas [See: Hell]

"Those who treat the Book, and the message we have sent through our apostles, as a lie, will know the truth hereafter: when, with chains and collars around their necks, they shall be dragged through scalding water and burned in the fire of hell." (Surah 40:71)

"Those who disbelieve from among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists, will be in Hell-Fire, to dwell therein (for aye). They are the worst of creatures." Surah 98:6

"The Holy Prophet said: 'I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful.'" Mishkat ul-Masabih, (translated by Karim, Vol. 3, p.117)

"Abu Darda reported that the Holy Prophet said: Allah created Adam when he created him (sic). Then He stroke (sic) his right shoulder and took out a white race as if they were seeds, and He stroke (sic) his left shoulder and took out a black race as if they were coals. Then He said to those who were in his right side: Towards paradise and I don't care. He said to those who were on his left shoulder: Towards Hell and I don't care."

"Allah forgives whoever he wants or does not want. Allah chooses whom he pleases to send to hell." Surah 32:13

[See: Predestination; Hell; Faith based Salvation; Works based Salvation]

Hell:

For God to be God there is only one standard of moral right-doing and everyone who violates this is guilty, so we stand condemned under His law of moral right-doing. Romans 3:11-20 says, "As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one. Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness: their feet are swift to shed blood: destruction and misery are in their ways: and the way of peace have they not known there is no fear of God before their eyes. Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin." There is no solution or release from the certainty of our condemnation except by substitution. [See: Affirms substitutionary atonement; Faith based Salvation]

"And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell." Matt 10:28

"And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power." 2 Thes 1:7-9

"Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. And there was found no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, standing before God, and books were opened. And another book was opened, which is the Book of Life. And the dead were judged according to their works, by the things which were written in the books. The sea gave up the dead who were in it, and Death and Hades delivered up the dead who were in them. And they were judged, each one according to his works. Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire." Rev 20:11-15

The Bible promises a final judgment of all mankind. [See: The Basis of God's Judgment Upon All Mankind]

"For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive the things done in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad." 2 Cor 5:10

"For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son." John 5:22

"Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead." Acts 17:31

Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them. Therefore you are inexcusable, O man, whosoever you art that judges: for wherein thou judges another, you condemn yourself; for you that judges do the same things. But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things. And think you this, O man, that judges them which do such things, and does the same, that you shalt escape the judgment of God?" Rom 1:32-2:3

[See: Christianity values unbelievers; God; Confession; Witnessing; Faith based Salvation; Unbelievers; Heaven]

Works based Salvation:

Salvation is obtained by confession of certain beliefs (Shahada) and works (of self-effort) to obey Allah. Surah 35:7

Salvation is about doing more good deeds than bad deeds. No sacrifice for sins is needed (man does not 'sin', he is merely 'weak'). Denies original sin, Surah 2:35-38.

Asserts two categories of bad behavior: major and minor, Surah 4:31; Hadith 4:28

Major: apostasy, refusal to convert to Islam, speaking against Muhammad, or calling him a liar, adultery (unprovable if done by man, murder (except in claims of jihad, apostasy, honor killing (Surah 5:33; Sahih Bukhari 9.84.57-58, 64, 72), will of Allah, etc.), mistreatment of parents, desertion during jihad. [See: Approves of rape, sexual assault, slavery]

Minor: lying, deception, anger, lust (In the case of lying note the practice of taqiyya and kitman (alternate spellings: taqiya, taqiyah, tuqyah) which is the belief that deception, lies, untruths and distortions is in their best interests to promote and advocate for the advancement of Islam. [See: Deception, Lying and Taqiyya]

"Allah's Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform a that, then they save their lives an property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah." Hadith 1:24

Work out his or her own eternal security:

Follow Islamic creed or Aqeedah: recite sahada, pray the salaat, pay zakat to the poor, fast during Ramadhan, make pilgrimage to the Ka'ba to perform Hajj. Only Muslims killed in jihad or holy war are 'promised a reward' in heaven. Surah 2:216; 2:244; 4:74; 47:4

The very real uncertainty of salvation or eternal rewards is known. Hadith 5:715; 8:319; 5:266; 1:620; Surah 3:1129 And this uncertainty remains in spite of Muhammad claiming to bear witness to the truth, Surah 43:86 [See: Predestination]

The Holy Prophet said: "I was shown the Hell-fire (jahannam) and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful." It was asked, 'Do they disbelieve in Allah?' (or are they ungrateful to Allah?) He replied, 'They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them. If you have always been good (benevolent) to one of them and then she sees something in you (not of her liking), she will say, "I have never received any good from you."'" Mishkat ul-Masabih, (translated by Karim, Vol. 3, p.117)

"Abu Darda reported that the Holy Prophet said: Allah created Adam when he created him (sic). Then He stroke (sic) his right shoulder and took out a white race as if they were seeds, and He stroke (sic) his left shoulder and took out a black race as if they were coals. Then He said to those who were in his right side: Towards paradise and I don't care. He said to those who were on his left shoulder: Towards Hell and I don't care."

"Allah forgives whoever he wants or does not want. Allah chooses whom he pleases to send to hell." Surah 32:13 [See:Hell]

"Allah's Apostle was asked, "What is the best deed?" He replied, "To believe in Allah and His Apostle (Muhammad). The questioner then asked, "What is the next (in goodness)? He replied, "To participate in Jihad (religious fighting) in Allah's Cause." The questioner again asked, "What is the next (in goodness)?" He replied, "To perform Hajj (Pilgrim age to Mecca) 'Mubrur, (which is accepted by Allah and is performed with the intention of seeking Allah's pleasure only and not to show off and without committing a sin and in accordance with the traditions of the Prophet)." Hadith 1:25"

[See: Claims about (Isa) Jesus; Hell; and Works based Salvation]

[Note: Muslim's deny that they are under the death penalty from the original sin of Adam and Eve (Surah 2:35-38). They assert self-righteousness can remove sin (more good deeds than bad, (Surah Al-Anbiya 47; Al-Mumenoon 102)). It does not change the proclivity to sin (weakness) or remove guilt for past sins. Since Allah chooses whom he pleases to send to hell (Surah 32:13), where then is justice if he 'arbitrarily' forgives or not forgives. To be just he cannot be arbitrary, the penalty must be paid.]

Faith based Salvation:

God forgives iniquity, transgression and sins but does not clear the guilty. [The penalty must be paid!] "Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation." (Exo 34:7; Num 14:18)

Christianity presents and affirms substitutionary atonement in the payment for mankind's sins and a cancellation/release from the penalty for the original sin of Adam and Eve and for our sins. God pays for our sins by the death of Jesus, the "Son of God," on our behalf, the just for the unjust, the eternal for the temporal. Sin is not allowed in God's eternal world - it must be dealt with.

Salvation is by grace alone through acceptance of Jesus' sacrifice on behalf of our sins as a substitute for us. "But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God." Heb 10:12 [See: Affirms substitutionary atonement]

"Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved)." Eph 2:3-5

"And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house." Acts 16:31

"But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference: For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God." Rom 3:21-23

"Now it was not written for his sake alone, that it was imputed to him; But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead; Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification." Rom 4:23-25

"But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness." Rom 4:5

"Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified." Gal 2:16

"But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe." Gal 3:22

"Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you, Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God." 1 Pet 1:18-21

"But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him." Heb 11:6

It is a faith based acceptance of God's provided righteousness. We exercise faith in what God has said, already done, and will yet do as validated in the Holy scriptures and enter into a new life, i.e. become a new creation (2 Cor 5:17) and a son of God (John 1:12). Rom 6:23; Eph 2:5-8; 1 Tim 2:6; 2 Tim 2:9; Titus 3:5

Be transformed becoming a new man in Christ, Rom 12:1-3, 6:13, 16; Matt 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23; Eph 4:24; Col 3:10; 1 Tim 6:11, Phil 2:5; 2 Thes 2:13; etc.

Be holy because God is holy, Lev 20:26

Jesus willingly came to be the Savior of all mankind: Matt 20:28; Mark 10:45; 14:24; Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 5:31; 13:23; 1 Tim 1:1; 2:3; 4:10; 2 Tim 1:10; Titus 1:3; 3:4; 2 Pet 1:1, 11; 1 John 4:4, etc. [See: Claims about Jesus]

Salvation is available to all who will believe: Act 28:28; Rom 1:16; 1 Thes 1:5; Titus 2:11; 1 Peter 1:1-6; Heb 10:22; Acts 17:31 [See: Christianity values unbelievers]

[Note: This is a real dilemma for Muslims. Allah asserts he makes a person good or evil (Predestination; Hadith 8:611; Surah 32:13), that he chooses whom he pleases to send to hell (arbitrary, Surah 32:13), that every man is wholly responsible for his own acts (personal responsibility, Surah 35:7), i.e. the consequences cannot be transferred to another. Which way is it? It cannot be all three because they contradict each other. Is your eternal destiny decided by: predestination—no choice of your own, arbitrary—Allah chooses whom he pleases, or personal responsibility—your own efforts? It would be much better to have a real, solid basis upon which to base your eternal destiny! The divine and perfect Jesus, who willing took our place in death and was approved by God who raised Him from the dead, would be such a secure anchor for the soul.

There is no solution or release from the certainty of our condemnation except by substitution. That is by someone standing in our place in the day of judgment who is already approved. Our hope, then, is in one — Jesus Christ — who will not fail to measure up to God's moral right-doing, and our confidence will be bolstered since he has already been approved by being raised from the dead. The Basis Of The Gospel Message [See: Denies substitutionary atonement]

"Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead, even by him doth this man stand here before you whole. This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner. Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved." Acts 4:10-12

"Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life." John 5:24

"And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead." Acts 10:42

"Testifying both to the Jews, and also to the Greeks, repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ." Acts 20:21

"That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved." Rom 10:9]

Paradise (Heaven):

It is portrayed as a place where all of man's desires will be satisfied in a beautiful garden with beautiful chambers. Surah 55:46-61

Narrated Sahl bin Sa'd: The Prophet said, "Whoever guarantees me (the chastity of) what is between his legs (i.e. his private parts), and what is between his jaws (i.e., his tongue), I guarantee him Paradise." (Sahih Bukhari 8.799)

"Verily for the righteous there will be a fulfillment of (the heart's) desires; gardens enclosed, and grapevines; companions of equal age; and a cup full (to the brim). No vanity shall they hear therein, nor untruth: recompense from thy Lord, a gift, (amply) sufficient..." Surah 78:31-36

"As to the righteous, they shall drink of a cup (of wine) mixed with kafur, a fountain where the devotees of God do drink, making it flow in unstinted abundance. They perform (their) vows, and they fear a day whose evil flies far and wide. And they feed, for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive, (saying), 'We feed you for the sake of God alone: no reward do we desire from you, nor thanks. We only fear a day of distressful wrath from the side of our Lord.' But God will deliver them from the evil of that day, and will shed over them a light of beauty and (blissful) joy. And because they were patient and constant, He will reward them with a garden and (garments of) silk. Reclining in the (garden) on raised thrones, they will see there neither the sun's (excessive heat) nor (the moon's) excessive cold. And the shades of the (garden) will come low over them, and the bunches (of fruit), there, will hang low in humility. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal — crystal-clear, made of silver: they will determine the measure thereof (according to their wishes). And they will be given to drink there of a cup (of wine) mixed with zanjabil — a fountain there, called salsabil. And round about them will (serve) youths of perpetual (freshness): If thou seest them, thou wouldst think them scattered pearls. And when thou lookest, it is there thou wilt see a bliss and a realm magnificent. Upon them will be green garments of fine silk and heavy brocade, and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver; and their Lord will give to them to drink of a wine pure and holy. 'Verily this is a reward for you, and your endeavor is accepted and recognized'." Surah 76:5-22

[See: About Islam: The rewards of paradise; PARADISE—JANNA; Heaven and Hell in the Qur'an and Gospel; Hell]

Heaven:

The last chapter of the Bible (Rev 22:2-3) describes the tree of life before the throne of God which is a counterpart to the tree of life in the garden of Eden that Adam and Eve were instructed to tend but not eat from. Because of their disobedience, by taking the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, they were thrown out of the Garden of Eden. Heaven is the whole restoration of all that God planned for his creation through eternity. Only those who love God and their fellow man as God intended shall be there. In this the covetous, disobedient and unlawful shall take no part, "For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie." (Rev 22:15)

"The Bible also describe some physical aspects: no more hunger, thirst, scorching heat, tears, death, mourning, crying or pain (Revelation 7:16,17, 21:4). But the overwhelming amount of description focus on:

  1. worship (Rev 4:8-11, 5, 7:10-12, 15:2-4, 19:1-7)
  2. praising God's holiness, glory, justice (Rev 4:8, 7:12, 15:3-4, 16:5, 21:11,23-27)
  3. prayer (Rev 8:3)
  4. serving God (Rev 5:10, 7:15)
  5. salvation and righteousness (Rev 7:10,14, 14:3-5, 19:8)
  6. relationship with God (Rev 7:17, 21:3, 21:22, 22:1-5 )
  7. renewal of all things (Rev 21), food for healing of nations (Rev 22:2)"

"The description of Heaven in the Bible also has an interesting symmetry. In the last chapter of the Bible, Revelation 22:2-3, it describes the tree of life before the throne of God. Adam and Eve were thrown out of Eden for disobeying God by taking the fruit from the tree of knowledge (which when eaten cause death -- separation from God). Thus, heaven represents not just eternal bliss, nor does it represent mere physical pleasure. It is the restoration and renewal of the original plan God has for all creation and man. Man is restored to his original vocation of being a worshipper and a steward of God's creation (Luke 19:11-27)." PARADISE—JANNA

[See: Hell; Heaven and Hell in the Qur'an and Gospel]

Jihad:

[voluntary and involuntary (forced) conversion]

It is primarily a physical endeavor and struggle against the enemies of Islam, especially if understood by the practices of Muhammad who launched offensive military campaigns and strongly emphasized physical jihad. Muslim believe that Islam is superior to all other religions and must be promoted. This is deeply rooted in orthodoxy and history. (Sahih Bukhari 5:59.287; A. Guillaume, trans., The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 289; Surah 4:74-76; 4:89; 5:33; 8:12; 9:5, 9:29, 9:111; Hadith 2:483; 9:459; Sahih Bukhari 1.2.24; Sahih Muslim 19.436; et cetera, Violence).

However, the very minor Ahmadi sect views jihad as an internal struggle against one's baser desires, not against people based upon Surah 2:62 and 2:256.

Western views are more pacifist (or subterfuge) while Eastern views are more aggressive and violent (Islam: Goals, Insights and Background, Forced Conversion). Those Muslims who do not go to war are sealed for hell. Surah 9:93-101

"Allah's Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform a that, then they save their lives an property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah." Hadith 2:24 Sahih Bukhari

"... And fight them till there is no more affliction (i.e. no more worshiping of others along with Allah)" Hadith 60:40 Sahih Bukhari

"Testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, or else I will chop off your neck!" Hadith 59:643 Sahih Bukhari

Killing disbelievers is a small matter to us. Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 69

  1. Abdallah Rawahah encouraged the men, saying, "By Allah, what you loathe is the very thing you came out to seek - martyrdom. We are not fighting the enemy with number, strength, or multitude, but we are fighting them with this religion with which Allah has honored us. So come on! Both prospects are fine: victory or martyrdom." Al-Tabari, Vol. 8, p. 153, See also Ishaq 533.
  2. Surah 2:216 War is decreed to you, and it is hated by you. And perhaps you may hate something and it is good for you, and perhaps you love something and it is evil for you. And Allah knows, and you do not know.
  3. Surah 9:5 So when the forbidden months are passed, so kill the polytheists (that includes Christians) wherever you find them, and take them [as captives], and besiege them, and lay wait for them with every kind of ambush, so if they repent (become Muslims) and perform the prayer and give the legal alms, so leave their way free. Surely Allah is forgiving, merciful.
  4. Surah 8:65 O you prophet, provoke the believers to engage in war. If there will be twenty patient ones of you, they will have victory over two hundred.
  5. Surah 9:73 O you prophet, perform jihad against the infidels and the hypocrites, and be harsh with them. And their abode will be hell, and evil is the destination.

"Allah's Apostle was asked, "What is the best deed?" He replied, "To believe in Allah and His Apostle (Muhammad). The questioner then asked, "What is the next (in goodness)? He replied, "To participate in Jihad (religious fighting) in Allah's Cause." The questioner again asked, "What is the next (in goodness)?" He replied, "To perform Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) 'Mubrur, (which is accepted by Allah and is performed with the intention of seeking Allah's pleasure only and not to show off and without committing a sin and in accordance with the traditions of the Prophet)." Hadith 1:25

The Islamic requirements are either:
1) surrender to Islamic rule and pay penalty (the Jizya tax—an extortion tax, Surah 9:29; Muslim 19:4294; Bukhari 53:386; Ishaq 956 & 962), or
2) recite Shahada (the central proclamation of Islam, Surah 2:62), or
3) face death as an infidel.
[See: Shahada; Infidels; Sharia; Islam: Goals, Insights and Background, Jizya (Extortion); Why should a person who disbelieves after becoming Muslim be executed? ]

Witnessing:

[voluntary conversion]

Witnessing is telling others about what God has done for them and explaining how God is reconciling them to Himself through Christ Jesus. It is presenting to an unbeliever evidence from the scripture's internal cohesion and consistency and externally validated testimony on historical people, places, events and fulfilled prophecies. These confirm the integrity of the scriptures so that we may be certain of its testimony about spiritual things. The scriptures teach us about our creator, our sins of disobedience and how Jesus Christ came to rescue us. They tell us what God has already done and will yet do. All of this is presented in the spirit of humility and truth to answer the inquiry of those who are seeking or may seek to know God and have a relationship with Him. [See: Christians Believe; The Basis Of The Gospel Message]

"And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation. ... Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God." 2 Cor 5:18, 20

"And they, when they had testified and preached the word of the Lord, returned to Jerusalem, and preached the gospel in many villages of the Samaritans." Acts 8:25

"For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect." 1 Cor 1:17

"For though I preach the gospel, I have nothing to glory of: for necessity is laid upon me; yea, woe is unto me, if I preach not the gospel!" 1 Cor 9:16

"And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!" Rom 10:15

"And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature." Mark 16:15

"And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come." Matt 24:14

"Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her." Matt 26:13

[Note: "The targeted use of language belonging to the religious practice of the Infidel is a characteristic tactic to ingratiate Islamic culture to America. All in all, the appearance of Islam in America as "just like us" is manufactured; it intentionally distorts the real face of Islam. This is nothing less than stealth jihad." The Truth about Islam and Book-Burning, American Thinker.com, May 25, 2011

"The honor of Islam lies in insulting the unbelief and the unbelievers (kafirs). One who respects kafirs dishonors Muslims... The real purpose of levying the Jizya on them is to humiliate them... [and] they remain terrified and trembling." Islamic Jihad, http:www.thereligionofpeace.com/pages/quran/jizya.aspx]

Angels:

(A topic never directly addressed in the Qur'an but in the hadiths.) [See: Hadiths]

Assert angels never disobey, Surah 66 (At-Tahrim), ayah 6

Angel sent to Mary, Surah 3 (Ali-Imran), ayah 45

Jibrail/Jibril (Judeo-Christian, Gabriel), the angel of revelation. Jibril is the archangel responsible for revealing the Qur'an to Muhammad, verse by verse. Surah 2 (Al-Baqara) ayat 97-98

The magnitude of the angel Gabriel, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:54:457

Israfil or Israafiyl (Judeo-Christian, Uriel), is an archangel in Islam who will blow the trumpet twice [or thrice] at the end of time.

Mikail (Judeo-Christian, Michael), who provides nourishments for bodies and souls, the archangel of mercy, who is responsible for the rewards doled out to good people in this life. Surah 43 (Az-Zukhruf) ayah

'Azrael/'Azraaiyl also known as Malak al-maut (Judeo-Christian, Azrael), the angel of death.

Haaroot and Maaroot (Harut and Marut), Surah 2 (Al-Baqara) ayah 102

Azrael, Israfil, Munkar and Nakir are not mentioned directly in the Qur'an, only in the hadiths.

Angels:

All created beings in heaven were formed during creation week. Gen 1:1 [Types named: angel, archangel, cherub, saraph, with a possible hierarchy of angels: principality, authority, ruler, power, might, dominion, throne, elders. (Eph 6:12; Rom 8:38, Eph 1:21, and Col 1:16; 1 Thess 4:16; https://carm.org/are-there-different-kinds-of-angels-in-the-bible)

"And the angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I." (Gen 22:11)

"And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire." Hebrews 1:7

"And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings. ... And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary." Luke 1:19, 26-27

"Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, That in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven." Matt 18:10

"And, behold, the angel of the Lord came upon him, and a light shined in the prison: and he smote Peter on the side, and raised him up, saying, Arise up quickly. And his chains fell off from his hands." Acts 12:7

"Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee." Jude 1:9

"And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven." Rev 12:7-8

Jinn:

Spiritual beings often considered analogous to demons.

"The jinn are NOT fallen angels. They were created from a smokeless flame of fire. The first recorded jinn to be disobedient is Iblis. Disbelieving, disobedient jinn and humans are known as shayateen (satans)." Jinn

"He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery. And the jinns did He create from a smokeless flame of fire." Surah 55:15, 15 Ar-Rahmaan

Fallen Angels, Spirits, Demons:

(a.k.a. familiar spirits)

Fallen angels (spiritual beings), evil or unclean spirits, demons: angels who left their primeval estate and conduct to align themselves with Satan (Lucifer).

"And he caused his children to pass through the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom: also he observed times, and used enchantments, and used witchcraft, and dealt with a familiar spirit, and with wizards: he wrought much evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke him to anger." 2 Chr 33:6

"And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God." Mark 3:11

"And certain women, which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils." Luke 8:2

"When the even was come, they brought unto him many that were possessed with devils: and he cast out the spirits with his word, and healed all that were sick. ... And they that kept them fled, and went their ways into the city, and told every thing, and what was befallen to the possessed of the devils." Matt 8:16, 33

"And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease." Matt 10:1

"And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God." Mark 3:11

"For unclean spirits, crying with loud voice, came out of many that were possessed with them: and many taken with palsies, and that were lame, were healed.' Acts 8:7

Satan:

(a jinn)

According to basic Islamic teachings, God revealed the creation of three intelligent species: angels (malikah), demons (jinn), and humans (basher), of which the latter two have been granted free will to choose between good and evil. Surah 7 (Al-A'raf) ayat 11-12

Azazel was the name of the devil (a jinn who refused to bow for Adam) before losing God's mercy. After this he is known as Ibls (which can be translated as the outcast or "thrown from god's mercy"; plural: ablisah), Shay n (plural: shay n or shaitan). [See: Jinn]

Satan:

(a.k.a. the dragon, that old serpent, the Devil (Rev 20:2), the accuser, Lucifer, Wicked one) [See: Fallen Angels, Spirits, Demons]

All created beings in heaven, i.e. the various angels, were formed during creation week. Gen 1:1; Eze 28:13-15

The angel Satan has other angels which follow him. "And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceives the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him." Rev 12:9

"For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ. And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light. Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also be transformed as the ministers of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works." 2 Cor 11:13-15

Isa:

The Arabic name for Jesus.

Hazrat Isa (Hazrat: An honorific title meaning "respected")

Jesus:

Jesus Christ, Christ Jesus, Lord Jesus, Savior, Messiah, etc. (at least 298 names — Names of Christ) [See: Claims about Jesus]

Claims about (Isa) Jesus:

Asserts Isa (Jesus) knows the hour of the Second Coming, Surah 43:61

Only Allah can create life. Surah 22:73; 50:38 (Note Surah 41:9-10, 12)

Virgin birth of Mary by special miracle, Surah 3:42-47; 19:16-31

Ministry of (Isa) Jesus: points to Muhammad, Surah 61:6

He is only a messenger pointing to Muhammad. Surah 61:6; 33:40; only a prophet (not divine), Surah 5:72-75

Slave of Allah, Surah 19:29-30; 13:38

Faultless Sura, 19:19; 6:86; All struck by Satan except Jesus, Sahih Muslim 4:6429 p.1399

Great prophet, Surah 2:253

Performed miracles with Allah's permission, Surah 4:9; 5:110; or marvellous works, 5:110

Asserts 4 other things about Isa (Jesus) that belong to Allah alone. Surah 3:49

  • I make for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and breathe into it and it becomes a bird by God's leave.
  • And I heal the blind,
  • and the lepers,
  • and I raise the dead by God's leave.

Supplanted by Muhammad as mediator / intercessor (minor view: Hadith 2:553; 8:570 / dominant view: Surah 2:48)

Will return again for judgment, Hadith 4:658; 3:425; 43:57-61

Death, resurrection and ascension, Surah 4:157; 19:33,34; 3:55; 4:158

Mediation, 3:45; 5:117

Jesus Christ is not the saviour. Surah 19:30-31

The names of Jesus in the Qur'an:

[For 303 references: The Muslim Jesus: Sayings and Stories in Islamic Literature, President and Fellows of Harvard College, First Harvard University Press, 2003]

Claims about Jesus:

Jesus stated, while on earth, that he does not know the day or hour of the Second Coming. Matt 24:36; Mark 13:32

World made by Jesus: John 1:3, 10; Eph 3:9; Col 1:14-17; Heb 1:2

Virgin birth by Holy Spirit: Luke 1:30-31, 35

Ministry of Jesus: points to: His divinity John 1:1, Himself as the promised Messiah John 5:36; 10:25, 38, and Savior of the world John 4:42; Acts 5:31; 13:23; 2 Tim 1:10

Messiah: Matthew wrote to prove this to the Jews, John likewise wrote John 1:36, 41, 49; 4:25-29; 7:26-42; 17:1-4; 19:7; 20:30-31 [See: Matthew Cites Old Testament; Messianic Prophecies]

Sinless: 1 Pet 2:21-22; 1 John 2:1; Luke 23:47; Acts 3:14-15

Prophet: Luke 7:16

Miracles: Matt 8:26-27; Mark 1:27; 2:10-12; Luke 4:38-41; 7:14-15; 8:22-24; John 10:32 & 5:19

Unity in work and power of God: "I and my Father are one." John 10:30

Mediator / intercessor: "For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus." 1 Tim 2:5; Heb 2:17; 4:14; 9:15; 1 John 2:1 / Rom 8:34; 7:24-26

Second Advent / Judgment: John 5:22, 27-29; 14:3; Acts 17:31; 1 Thes 1:10; 4:16; 2 Thes 1:7-8; Rev 1:5-7

Judge of all: "And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead." Acts 10:42

Authority: John 5:26-29; Matt 28:18; 1 Pet 3:21-22: 1 Cor 15:22-25; Heb 5:9; Acts 10:38; Eph 1:20-21

[See: Jesus Christ; Asserts divinity of Jesus; Titles and Descriptions of Jesus Christ]

Denies divinity of (Isa) Jesus:

Asserts a low Christology - simply created human Surah 3:59; 4:171; 22:73; 5:110, 116

Yet the Qur'an calls Jesus "the word of God" or "a word from God." Surah 3:45; 59

Asserts divinity of Jesus:

Asserts a high Christology - the Godhood, Sonship, and Kingship of Christ (Matt 5:35) John 1:1, 14; 5:23; 20:28; 1:1-3; Php 2:6-7; 1 Cor 8:6 and Deut 6:4; 1 John 5:20; Matt 26:63-64 [See: Dan 7:13 and Psa 110:1 and Mark 14:62; and Titles and Descriptions of Jesus Christ]

The divinity of Jesus is the premise and opening assertion which Apostle John presents in his Gospel as the explanation of His work, miracles, and ministry. [See: First and Last: A Study of Verses Applied to Both God and Jesus Christ; Deity of Christ; and That All Men Should Honor The Son]

Denies substitutionary atonement:

Denies substitution for sins and asserts that the doctrine of penal substitution is unjust. Instead, a set of scales weigh your good deeds against your bad deeds (Surah Al-Anbiya 47; Al-Mumenoon 102).

Allah forgives whoever he wants or does not want. Allah chooses whom he pleases to send to hell. Surah 32:13 [See: Hell]

"Say (O Muhammad): If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. Say: Obey Allah and the Apostle; but if they turn back, then surely Allah does not love the unbelievers." Surah 3:31-32

However, penal substitution is actively taught and expected:

Muslims see the Hadith Qudsi (meaning, sacred hadith) as the words of Allah himself, which are repeated by the prophet Muhammad. Hadith Qudsi (8) says Allah will place the burdens of Muslims on the shoulders of Jews and Christians at the day of judgment.

[See: Denies death of (Isa) Jesus]

Affirms substitutionary atonement:

(soteriology - the doctrine or study of salvation)

God is not asking or forcing some random person to pay or suffer for our sins, He is paying for our sins Himself! Someone of inestimable value voluntarily paying for the incalculable multitude of human sins is certainly a fair exchange. The wages for our sin(s) is death, and He died on our behalf thus balancing the demands of justice while showing to us great mercy.

"For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." Rom 6:23

"But God commends his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." Rom 5:8

Now, the Apostle does not leave us without hope in the day of judgment but presents to us these words of comfort in Rom 3:21-26.

[See: Faith based Salvation; Christians Believe: Sub-heading: God punishes sins and will judge all men for their actions; The 12 Biggest Lies

[Note: "[T]he application of double standards is the surest sign of a failed argument. Why are Muslim polemicists so quick to argue that the Christian doctrine of penal substitution is unjust, and yet on these passages, which teach the repugnant doctrine that the sins of Muslims will be placed on the shoulders of Jews and Christians, there is complete silence?", Jonathan McLatchie, Answering An Islamic Objection: The Justice of Penal Substitution]

Denies death of (Isa) Jesus:

No death on the cross, Surah 4:157

Muslim books on Jesus Life are polemical: starting with a premise, finding supportive facts and arguing the assumed conclusion.

Jesus in India, by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad claims Jesus died naturally at age 100 and not on the Roman cross.

Muslims assert either the swoon theory mimicing death or the substitution theory having Jesus replaced by another similar looking person.

Establishes Death of Jesus:

Death on the cross, Isa 53:6; John 19:31-34; Mark 15:43-46; Acts 17:3

Roman soldiers were under law to replace anyone in their charge who escaped and receive their penalty. They were very certain to carry out any orders of execution and knew how to verify death. The statement of 'blood and water' came out validates prior death. Apostle John states 'he was dead already' and 'but one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water' in 19:33-34. Without the death of Jesus there could be neither his resurrection nor Christians later. The death of Jesus on the cross is among the surest facts of history.

The witnesses of Christ's death include: the chief priests, with the scribes and elders; Roman soldiers and their Centurion; two thieves; two other malefactors; they that passed by; Joseph of Arimathaea; also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome; all his acquaintance (disciples); at least two angels; and God himself. Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ and The Death of Jesus Christ

[Note: "If Muslims offer, as an argument, the substitution theory for the replacement of Jesus in the tomb with another man, would it not be an implicit endorsement of a voluntary exchange and of a willing substitution, and therefore equally valid for Jesus to offer himself as a substitution for any man in the tomb?" [See: Denies substitutionary atonement versus Affirms substitutionary atonement]

Affirms resurrection of Jesus:

Raised to life again, Surah 3:55; 4:158; 19:33-34; (Surah 22:1; 81:1-7; 36: 48-52 3:55)

Affirms resurrection of Jesus:

The witnesses of Christ's resurrection include:

  • The Angel's testimony at the tomb
  • Roman soldiers' testimony
  • Revealing first to Mary Magdalene
  • Revealing second to a group of women followers
  • Revealing third to Cleopas and another on the road to Emmaus
  • Revealing to Simon Peter
  • The 1st revealing to many disciples
  • The 2nd revealing to many disciples
  • The 3rd revealing to seven disciples
  • The 4th revealing to eleven disciples
  • The revealing to more than 500 disciples
  • The revealing to James
  • The revealing at His ascension to many disciples
  • The testimony of two Angels at the ascension
  • The revealing to Saul of Tarsus
  • The testimony of Jesus

Resurrection: John 1:29; 21:14; Matt 16:13-21; 27:1-66; 28:1-7; 28:11-15; 1 Cor 15:3-4; Rev 1:18; etc. Resurrection Of Jesus

Salaat:

The Muslim ritual of 5 prayers per day (fajr, zuhf, asr, maghrib, isha) with frequent repetition (rakaat), ceremonial washing (wudhu), and often with prayer leader (imam).

No ritual prayers:

Prayer is to honor or praise God, offer gratitude, supplicate for self and others, etc. Roman Catholics and some others offer ritual prayers but not from a biblical basis or directive.

"I will offer to thee the sacrifice of thanksgiving, and will call upon the name of the Lord." Psa 116:17

"I cried unto the Lord with my voice; with my voice unto the Lord did I make my supplication." Psa 142:1

"Moreover as for me, God forbid that I should sin against the Lord in ceasing to pray for you: but I will teach you the good and the right way." 1 Sam 12:23

"For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers." Rom 1:9

"Pray without ceasing." 1 Thes 5:17

Imam:

A leader of Muslims, often in leading prayer at a mosque.

Ulema:

Muslim religious scholars

Clergy:

Pastor, Minister, Priest, Bishop, lay-pastor — the presbyters, and spiritual guides of the church, elders by office. Pastor-Minister-Overseer-Bishop

Jumaa:

The name for the Muslim Sabbath day.

Sabbath:

Understood to be the seventh day of the week (formally Saturday) and to be a day of rest from labor to seek God and develop a relationship with Him. It often refers to a rest day including Sunday or a Holy day.

Shahada:

The central proclamation of Islam, which upon reciting makes the individual a Muslim (preferably before witnesses). Surah 2:62

Confession:

(a.k.a. creed)

Acknowledge the virgin birth, sinless life, voluntary crucifixion, death, burial, resurrection of Jesus, and proclaim Him as Lord (over all things, including self). Acts 24:14;

"For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:" 1 Cor 15:3-4

"That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved." Rom 10:9

[See: Christians Believe; The Basis of God's Judgment Upon All Mankind; The Basis Of The Gospel Message; Whosoever Eats My Flesh]

Five Pillars of Islam:

Recite sahada or shahadah, uttering the Muslim profession of faith;

Pray the salaat five times each day facing Mecca;

Pay zakat to the poor, (Zakat: obligatory alms);

Fast, sawm, during Ramadhan;

Make pilgrimage to the Ka'ba to perform Hajj, (Hajj: the annual pilgrimage to Mecca).

[Note: These are five actions that neither need nor reflect a change in heart or character. These reflect a submission to a rigid ritual structure. The word Islam, actually means "submission" and it comes from the root Arabic word "taslim". In Arabic, the word for peace is only "solh"."]

[See: Confession; Witnessing]

Confession of sin is: Admission of doing wrong; Apologize for hurt, injury, offense to other person(s); Accept consequences and make restitution where able; Ask for forgiveness; Alter choices made in the future.

In addition to the ongoing confession of sin, a Christian life is living an honest life before God and men, seeking holiness and obedience to Jesus' commandments from a changed heart, especially those of love to God and fellow man. It includes sharing and teaching others about God and salvation through Jesus Christ with the hope of eternal life in God's presence.

[Note: The actions of Christian belief require and reflect a change in heart and character. These include: believe Jesus is the Savior sent of God (John 5:24; Matt 10:32), repent of and make restitution for sins (Luke 15:7; 19:8; Acts 20:21), resist those kinds of thoughts and behaviors (Matt 5:28; 2 Tim 2:22; Heb 12:4), accept the Holy Spirit to transform us from our former self into Christ's likeness (Matt 7:21-27; Rom 8:15; 1 Cor 2:12), give testimony of God changing us (Luke 8:39; Acts 15:4), seek baptism (if possible, Acts 2:38; 10:47-48; 19:5), speak honestly and live righteously (1 Thes 2:1-4; Eph 4:15, 25), love others and serve them by showing compassion and mercy (John 13:35; Rom 12:10; 13:8; James 4:17), promote God's word (Col 3:16), teach others about the need for salvation through Christ's sacrifice on our behalf (Acts 10:42; 20:21), endure hardship (2 Tim 2:3; Heb 12:3; 1 Pet 2:9), and continue faithful unto death (Matt 10:22; Rev 2:10).]

Six articles of faith:

"We believe in the one God Allah; we believe in the unseen spiritual beings; we believe that Allah sent prophets into this world; we believe that He gave sacred scriptures to His prophets; we believe that there will be a day of judgment; and we believe that Allah's decree is sovereign over the universe." [Islamic missionary]

Surah 69:15-18; 75:12-25; 22:17 and 55:57; [must obey Ten commandments, Surah 2:63; 7:145]

Articles of faith:

Creeds are overviews of belief and confessions are details of the creed. Creeds are broad topical statements while confessions provide specific statements that expand upon aspects of the creed breaking down the overview into specific parts. [See: Confession]

Apostles' Creed
from the Book of Common Prayer, 1662

I believe in God the Father Almighty,
Maker of heaven and earth:

And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord,
Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost,
Born of the Virgin Mary,
Suffered under Pontius Pilate,
Was crucified, dead, and buried:
He descended into hell;
The third day he rose again from the dead;
He ascended into heaven,
And sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty;
From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

I believe in the Holy Ghost;
The holy Catholick Church;
The Communion of Saints;
The Forgiveness of sins;
The Resurrection of the body,
And the Life everlasting.
Amen.

Muhammad (Ahmad):

Last prophet of God, called "the seal of the prophets" superceeds Isa (Jesus): Surah 61:6; 33:40

Called by Allah, Surah 96:105

Prepared as prophet, Hadith 1:5, 13, 63

Claim Muhammad's acts were Allah's acts, Surah 33:21; Hadith 8:120

Allah will listen to Muhammad on judgment day, Hadith 2:553; 8:570; but limited Surah 2:48; and not as intercessor

[Note: Quran 7:157 states that can you find Muhammad mentioned in the Bible. But he in reality is not there, not even in Deut 18:15 or 18:18 - the usual claims in Islam. The only way to find Muhammad in the Bible, is in the claim from the Quran.

Jesus Christ:

The great Messiah and deliverer of God's people. There was testimony validating Jesus as the Messiah from the holy scriptures, John the Baptist, three individuals raised from the dead, the healed multitudes, Jesus own testimony offered in words and deeds, and that of God's voice from heaven. At Jesus' crucifixion God added the testimony of: the supernatural darkening of the sky at noon, the earthquake, the torn temple veil and the Gentile Centurion. What more was needed?

"... he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Show us the Father?" (John 14:9

Mediator / intercessor: 1 Tim 2:5; Heb 2:17; 4:14; 7:24-26; 9:15; 1 John 2:1

Lamb of God, "The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. ... And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God!" John 1:29, 36; "And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it." Rev 21:22

Prophet, "And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee." Mat 21:11; "Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that prophet that should come into the world." John 6:14

Priest, "Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus" Heb 3:1; "Whither the forerunner is for us entered, even Jesus, made an high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec." Heb 6:20

King, "And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood." Rev 1:5; "These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful." Rev 17:14; "And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, King Of Kings, And Lord Of Lords." Rev 19:16

Jesus made 8 categorically profound claims. View these 8 claims:

Morality:

"The Qur'an teaches that [Allah] cannot ultimately be known." ... "Certain actions are good not because they derive from God's character, but because God chooses to call them good." [Because Muhammad is viewed as "the seal of the prophets," Muslim] "morality derives from the Prophet's actions; the moral is whatever he did. Morality does not determine the Prophet's actions, but his actions determine and define morality. Muhammad's acts are then not ordinary acts; they were Allah's own acts [i.e., acts empowered, guided and approved by Allah]." ... "[T]he [Muslim] believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith. An infidel in his fundamental misguidance may find the Prophet rather sensual and cruel—and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality—but the believers look at the whole thing differently. To them morality derives from the Prophet's actions; the moral is whatever he did." (Islamic Ethics)

Do what you like, Hadith 4:690

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Ad-Darda' said, "We smile in the face of some people although our hearts curse them."

Honor killing, Surah 5:33; Sahih Bukhari 9.84.57-58, 64, 72

Practice selective quoting of Qur'an to present in best light for the circumstance: peaceful or warlike, forgiving or exacting vengeance (Surah 5:33), etc. while ignoring parts of the same or next verse. (A form of taqiyya and kitman.)

The Islamic practice of taqiyya and kitman (alternate spellings taqiya, taqiyah, tuqyah) Surah: 16:106; 3:28; 9:3; 40:28; 2:225; 3:54; Hadith and Sira: Bukhari (52:269; 49:857; 84:64-65; 50:369); Muslim (32:6303); Reliance of the Traveler (p. 746 - 8.2)

"Taqiyya — Saying something that isn't true.
Kitman — Lying by omission. An example would be when Muslim apologists quote only a fragment of verse 5:32 (that if anyone kills "it shall be as if he had killed all mankind") while neglecting to mention that the rest of the verse (and the next) mandate murder in undefined cases of "corruption" and "mischief."

"Though not called Taqiyya by name, Muhammad clearly used deception when he signed a 10-year treaty with the Meccans that allowed him access to their city while he secretly prepared his own forces for a takeover.

"Leaders in the Arab world sometimes say one thing to English-speaking audiences and then say something entirely different to their own people in Arabic. Yassir Arafat was famous for telling Western newspapers about his desire for peace with Israel, then turning right around and whipping Palestinians into a hateful and violent frenzy against Jews.

"The Qur'an says in several places that Allah is the best at deceiving people (Surah 3:54; 7:99; 8:30). An interesting side note is verse 7:99, which says that the only people who feel secure from Allah are those destined for Hell. Taken literally, this could mean that Muslims who arrogantly assume that they will enter heaven are in for a rude surprise (such are the hazards of worshipping an all-powerful deceiver)." Deception, Lying and Taqiyya

"And they cheated/deceived and God cheated/deceived, and God (is) the best (of) the cheaters/deceivers." (S. 3:54, Muhammad Ahmed-Samira)

"And they (the unbelievers) planned to deceive, and Allah planned to deceive (the unbelievers), and Allah is the best of deceivers." Surah 3:54

"Are they then safe from Allah's deception? No one feels safe from Allah's deception except those that shall perish." Surah 7:99

"And (remember) when the unbelievers plotted deception against you (O Muhammad), to imprison you, or kill you, or expel you. They plotted deception, but Allah also plotted deception; and Allah is the best of deceivers." Surah 8:30

[See: Works based Salvation; Ministry of Muhammad; Asserts that Muhammad's character and actions show the ideal man]
Morality:

The Bible grounds morality in God's essential character. [See: God]

Do only noble things. Be holy in word and deed because God is holy.

"For I am the Lord that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy." Lev 11:45; "For I am the Lord that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. ... And ye shall be holy unto me: for I the Lord am holy, and have severed you from other people, that ye should be mine." Lev 20:7, 26

"Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit." Matt 7:17

"Ye shall not steal, neither deal falsely, neither lie one to another." Lev 19:11

"You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? If you greet only your brothers, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same? Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect." Matt 5:43-48

"And because I [Jesus] tell you the truth, ye believe me not." John 8:45

"Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners." 1 Cor 15:33

"But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ." Eph 4:15

"Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds." Col 3:9

"If so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus: That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts; And be renewed in the spirit of your mind; And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour: for we are members one of another." Eph 4:21-25

"Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things." Php 4:8


[Note: Since the Bible declares that Satan is the father of lies (John 8:44) and Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light (2 Cor 11:14), the question must be raised: Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? [See: God knows everything]

[Note: "Have you read about the Islamic practice of taqiyya and kitman? It is the practice of Islam that contradicts and undermines "the most basic thing that humans do with each other." The Islamic ideology asserts the belief that deception, lies, untruths and distortions is in their best interests to promote and advocate for the advancement of Islam. When any ideology so contradicts simple honest communication it is outside of any consideration or respect by intelligent people. It is by its own admission a belief in and a practice of deception. Nowhere in the family unit or society is civility in human relations more undermined than when one individual lies to or practices deception with another." The Case Against Islam: Why Sharia Law Is So Dangerous]

Sharia:

Islamic laws of sharia establishes Islam as a political system fulfilling the Islamic ideology of dominion. Laws are enacted, courts established, and taxes are levied and enforced by govenments — never by a solely religious order or belief system.

Sharia enacts dhimmitude, a second-class citizenship, which is a suppressed, inferior, political position of its non-Muslim citizens. This is a surrender to Islamic rule and non-Muslims must pay an annual penalty (the jizya tax—an extortion tax, Surah 9:29; Muslim 19:4294; Bukhari 53:386; Ishaq 956 & 962) [See: The Case Against Islam: Why Sharia Law Is So Dangerous; Islam is Tolerant of Other Religions]

The application of the jizya tax upon non-Muslims destroys any pretense that Islam is merely a religion and not a political system asserting control over people. [See: Jizya (Extortion); Britain: Islamic Teacher Says Muslims Should Humiliate Christians To Make Them Convert To Islam]

"The honor of Islam lies in insulting the unbelief and the unbelievers (kafirs). One who respects kafirs dishonors Muslims... The real purpose of levying the Jizya on them is to humiliate them... [and] they remain terrified and trembling." Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism and Slavery by M. A. Khan

Figh: term for Islamic jurisprudence

The required jihad by Muslims against non-Muslimes does not establish the validity of Islam with its claims, but it forcibly expands its control over more people. [See: Jihad]

Representative government:

Government structured in tiers of increasing spheres along with an administrative, legislative and judicial system predicated upon the truths of God, i.e. creation, sovereignty, property rights, code of moral laws and judgments, personal freedom, civic responsibility, and requirements of compassion and mercy.

[Note: The purpose of a tiered citizenship is to value one group over another, to give them privilege and status, to establish their ruling authority over others. Why pretend that the application of sharia law, dhimmitude and the jizya tax upon non-Muslims is simply religious but not political? Why has Islam used war to conquer others if it is not an assertion of political dominion? [See: The Case Against Islam: Why Sharia Law Is So Dangerous; The Case Against Islam; Ministry of Muhammad]

Mufti:

A Muslim legal expert; the decision or ruling is a fatwa. [Example: Islam: Goals, Insights and Background]

Civil Law:

Judge or Appellate court: the(ir) decision or ruling is binding.

Lawyer or Counsel: a civil or religious legal expert.

Religious Council: the decision or ruling is binding.

Kafir:

infidel, non-Muslim

Sinner:

unbeliever, (may also use terms describing the unbeliever's belief system, or set of behaviors). This term is also used to describe the Christian's own behavior before salvation, and when wayward or disobedient after salvation. Col 3:9; Eph 4:21-25; Titus 3:3-5 [See: God loves sinners]

Allah hates sinners:

"Show me where in the Koran that Allah loves me as the sinner that I am, and I will become a Muslim."

The Qur'an cites about 22 types of sinners that Allah does not love. "Allah loves not the unjust." "Allah loves not the glutton."

Even more significantly, the Qur'an states that Allah does not love non-Muslims:

Say [O Muhammad]: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. Say: Obey Allah and the Apostle; but if they turn back, then surely Allah does not love the unbelievers. Surah 3:31-32

Then turn thy face straight to the right religion before there come from Allah the day which cannot be averted; on that day they shall become separated. Whoever disbelieves, he shall be responsible for his disbelief, and whoever does good, they prepare (good) for their own souls, that He may reward those who believe and do good out of His grace; surely He does not love the unbelievers. Qur'an 30:43-45

"God is an enemy to unbelievers." Surah 2:99

"God loves not the impious and sinners." Surah 2:277

"God loves not the unbelievers," Surah 3:33

"God loves not evildoers." Surah 3:58

"God loves not the proud." Surah 4:37

"God loves not transgressors." Surah 5:88

"God loves not the prodigal." Surah 6:142

"God loves not the treacherous." Surah 8:59

[See: Allah's love is conditional]
God loves sinners:

(but not their behavior of sins.)

God's concern for man is verified by Visits from God, it shows us what He is like, and that He wants us to draw near to Him. [See: God reveals himself, knowable]

God's love is impartial, universal, and unconditional.

"The LORD thy God in the midst of thee is mighty; he will save, he will rejoice over thee with joy; he will rest in his love, he will joy over thee with singing." Zeph 3:17

"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." John 3:16

"Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish." Matt 18:14

"Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin. But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference." Rom 3:19-22

"But God commends his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." Rom 5:8

"Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins." 1 John 4:10 [See: World-wide evangelism in the Old & New Testament; God's love is unconditional]

Four Spiritual Laws

Allah's love is conditional:

"To those who believe and do righteousness, God will assign love." Surah 19:97.

Allah's love is contingent on whether a person believes in Muhammad. This is similar to what we find in Surah 19:46, which declares: "Lo! those who believe and do good works, the Beneficent will appoint for them love." Surah 3:31-32

Allah is said to love those who do good deeds (Surah 2:195), those who are pure (Surah 2:222), those who are righteous (Surah 9:7), and those who fight in his cause (Surah 61:4), the Qur'an is equally clear that Allah has no love for transgressors (Surah 2:190), ungrateful sinners (Surah 2:276), the unjust (Surah 3:57), or the proud (Surah 4:36).

"Those who wage war against God and His Messenger and strive to spread corruption in the land should be punished by death, crucifixion, the amputation of an alternate hand and foot or banishment from the land: a disgrace for them in this world, and then a terrible punishment in the Hereafter, unless they repent before you overpower them: in that case bear in mind that God is forgiving and merciful." Surah 5:33-34 (The Qur'an, Oxford UP, 2004)

[See: Allah hates sinners; Promotes no love for fellow man]
God's love is unconditional:

The "Love me first and I'll love you back" kind of love exhibited by Allah in the Qur'an is condemned by Jesus in Matt 5:43-48:

"You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? If you greet only your brothers, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same? Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect."

"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." John 3:16

"But God commends his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." Rom 5:8

"Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God, even our Father, which hath loved us, and hath given us everlasting consolation and good hope through grace." 2 Thes 2:16

"He that loves not knows not God; for God is love." 1 John 4:8

"And we have seen and do testify that the Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world." 1 John 4:14

"For the Father himself loves you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came out from God." John 16:27

[See: God loves sinners; Promotes love for fellow man
Promotes no love for fellow man:

Allah is NEVER described as loving or in terms of love. Surah 19:96; Muslim philosopher Al-Ghazali says "It is inconceivable that Allah should love mankind, because where love is there must be a lover ..."

The Qur'an states that Allah does not love non-Muslims:

"Obey Allah and the Apostle; but if they turn back, then surely Allah does not love the unbelievers." Surah 3:32

..., surely He does not love the unbelievers. Surah 30:45

Allah is said to love those who do good deeds (2:195), those who are pure (2:222), those who are righteous (9:7), and those who fight in his cause (61:4), the Qur'an is equally clear that Allah has no love for transgressors (2:190), ungrateful sinners (2:276), the unjust (3:57), or the proud (4:36).

Islam legalizes torture by crucifixion and mutilation (cutting off hands and feet). Bukhari vol. 4, no. 3018, vol. 6, no. 4619, and vol. 8, no. 6802; Muslim vol. 3, nos. 4130-4137; Sunan Abu Dawud vol. 3, nos. 4351-4359; Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad, trans. Guillaume, pp. 677-78.

See this very informative article: Crucifixion and mutilation?

"One of the major flaws in Islamic law or sharia is that it applies specific punishments that are brutal and excessive, such as cutting off a hand of a thief or flogging a sexual sinner or cutting off an alternate hand and foot of a highway robber, perhaps even crucifying him to make an example of him. These laws are simply wrong, ipso facto, by their very nature, six hundred years after Jesus showed us a better way."


[See: Allah hates sinners; Allah's love is conditional]
Promotes love for fellow man:

God demonstrates His love for His human creation.

Men, women and children are valued as being made in God's image and are also among those for whom Christ came, died and rose again. They are valuable to God because He made them, loves them and seeks to have them repent, be transformed and receive eternal life.

"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." (John 3:16)

"But God commends his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." Rom 5:8

"Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved)." Eph 2:3-5

"For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost." Titus 3:3-5

"Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins." 1 John 4:10

"And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood." Rev 1:5

Luke in the book named after him, brings out events and teachings that reveal the depth of love Jesus had for his people: the sin-bound, oppressed, possessed, maimed, crippled, leperous, unled, impoverished, hungry, outcast, diseased, demented, discouraged and mournful amongst Israel and those outside the Covenant people of God.


God requires His human creation to love one another.

"You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? If you greet only your brothers, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same? Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect." Matt 5:43-48

We are to love others and serve them by showing compassion and mercy. (John 13:35; Rom 12:10; 13:8; James 4:17)

A Christian life is living an honest life before God and men, seeking holiness and obedience to Jesus' commandments from a changed heart, especially those of love to God and fellow man. This includes sharing and teaching others about God and salvation through Jesus Christ with the hope of eternal life in God's presence. (John 13:34; 15:12, 17; 1 John 3:23; Rom 13:8; Gal 5:13; Eph 1:15, Php 2:2; Col 1:4; etc.)

"Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren." 1 John 3:16

"He that loves not knows not God; for God is love." 1 John 4:8

[See: God loves sinners; Christianity values unbelievers; Heaven]

[Note: Have you considered the implications for a married couple with children and perhaps grandchildren? If the man or woman embraced Islam according to the numerous texts from the Qur'an (shown in the sections above), to be a devout and faithful Muslim what manner of 'non-love' under sharia must this person hold toward the unbelieving spouse, children and grandchildren, and likewise, be shown to their neighbors, co-workers and everyone else? And if this person showed any love at all to unbelievers was this practicing Muslim deception? This is a very serious dilemma for Muslim adherents: 1) be faithful to Islam and have no love for anyone else, OR 2) practice deception and pretend to demonstrate love for others, OR 3) renounce Islam for its insanity and accept Islam's punishment for apostasy. [The punishment for apostasy includes: state enforced annulment of marriage, seizure of the person's children and property with automatic assignment to guardians and heirs, and death for the apostate. See: Jihad; The Consequences Of Apostasy From Islam]

Allah & Muhammad devalue women:

Women are inferior, Hadith 1:301; 1:28; 8:555; Surah 4:3; 4:34; 78:33 [See: Approves of rape, sexual assault, slavery; Marriage; Women are inferior to men in the Qur'an]

Women receive a lessor inheritance, if any, Hadith 9:57; Surah 4:11 says: "The share of the male shall be twice that of a female ..."

"It would follow from this that the illegitimate daughter has no right to inheritance, and the rules of guardianship and custody would not apply to her." (Hashim Kamali, pp. 21 23 [eminent scholar of Islamic Jurisprudence and currently the Professor of Islamic Law and Jurisprudence at International Islamic University Malaysia])

[Note: These illegitimate daughters are the female children conceived from adultery, rape of captured females and sexual use of slaves.]

A woman's testimony is 1/2 the value of a man's testimony in law cases. Surah 2:282 says: "And let two men from among you bear witness to all such documents {contracts of loans without interest}. But if two men be not available, there should be one man and two women to bear witness so that if one of the women forgets (anything), the other may remind her."

Islam permits/promotes wife-beating, Surah 4:34

https://wikiislam.net/wiki/Wife_Beating_in_Islam; Sahih Muslim 4:2127; Sahih Bukhari 8:82:828, See also: Sahih Bukhari 1:7:330, and Sahih Bukhari 6:60:132; Abu Dawud 11:2139-2142; Ibn Ishaq: p 496; Sahih Bukhari 7:6:715; Sahih Muslim 9:3526-3527; Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 112-113; Al-Nawawi; Reliance of the Traveller; etc.

The Qur'an also states the prophet Job (Ayyub) was permitted to beat his wife in Surah 38:41-44

In Christianity women are of equal value to men:

Both have been created directly by God (Gen 1:26-27; 2:7, 21-22, both are redeemed through the same sacrifice by Jesus Christ (Gal 3:28; Heb 10:12)

Both are valued in the Church (Acts 5:14; 8:12; 17:12; Phil 4:3; 1 Tim 5:1-3),

Both obtain the same eternal reward (Matt 10:22; Mark 13:13; 1 Pet 4:19; Rev 21:4).

Jesus honored women by entering into the world through gestation in His mother (Matt 1:18-25), by revealing to another that He was the Messiah (John 4:25-26), including them in teaching His disciples (Matt 14:21; 15:38; Luke 23:27), commending the care of His mother to His dearest disciple (John 19:25-27), and showing them first that He had risen from the dead (John 20:11-16; Matt 28:5-10).


[Note: Nothing is stated or implied that the skills, talents and capacities of individuals are equal. Their worth is established: 1) because they are all made in the image of God, 2) at great cost God came down to redeem us and paid for our sins, because we could never pay.]

[Note: "In Islam ... the whole system is based on the assumption that the woman is a powerful and dangerous being. All sexual institutions (polygamy, repudiation, sexual segregation) can be perceived as a strategy for containing her power." from Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in a Modern Muslim Society, by Fatimah Mernissi.

"Women must be controlled to prevent men being distracted from their social and religious duties. Society can only survive by creating the institutions which foster male dominance through sexual aggression." Al-Ghazali [Abu amid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazl (1058-1111), shortened as Al-Ghazali (a.k.a. Algazelus or Algazel)] was a Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic of Persian descent.]

Asserts that Muhammad's character and actions show the ideal man:

The Hadiths presents Muhammad as the exemplary human whom Muslims must imitate in all respects.

But ...

Muhammad had been poisoned (Sahih Bukhari 3.47.786); on his deathbed, he felt as if the poison were killing him (Sahih Bukhari 5.59.713); he had black magic cast on him (Sahih Bukhari 4.54.490); he revealed verses he later admitted had been from Satan (Guillaume, Life of Muhammad, 165-66), he tortured people for money (Ibid., 515); he led an attack on unarmed Jews (Sahih Bukhari 1.11.584); he caused his adopted son to divorce so he could marry his daughter-in-law Zainab (Surah 33:37; Sahih Muslim 8.3330; Tabari, vol. 8 pp. 2-3); he told people to drink camel's urine (Sahih Bukhari 8.82.794; Sahih Muslim 16.4130); he had 11 wives, Hadith 1:268; etc.

For his character as prophet see:

See: Hadiths 9 volume set compiled by Imam Sahih Bukhari Vol. 1 hadith 1 & Vol. 9 hadith 111; Vol. 1 hadith 24 & 25; Guillaume, Life of Muhammed, 676, 464; Surah 33:50;

Sahih Bukhari 7.62.64; 7.62.65; 7.62.88; Sahih Muslim 8.3310; 8.3313; | Sahih Bukhari 3.47.786; 5.59.713; 4.54.490; Guillaume, Life of Muhammed, 165-166, 515; Sahih Bukhari 1.11.584; | Surah 33:37; Sahih Muslim 8.3330 Tabari, vol. 8, pp. 2-3; | Sahih Bukhari 8.82.794; Sahih Muslim 16.4130 [See: Hadiths; Ministry of Muhammad]

Presents Jesus Christ as the perfect man:

He is the great Messiah and deliverer of God's people. Mediator / intercessor: 1 Tim 2:5; Heb 2:17; 4:14; 7:24-26; 9:15; 1 John 2:1

"Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls" Matt 11:28-29

"It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me." John 6:45

"... he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Show us the Father?" (John 14:9)

[See: Claims about Jesus:Sinless, Ministry of Jesus]

Matthew presents God's chosen leader and rescuer of man. Mark shows the humble servant who came to help us and bring us back to God again. John shows Jesus' divinity and sufficiency to pay for our sins and His compassion to us.

In the book named after him, Luke's carefully researched and recorded text brings out events and teachings that are important for us to grasp. These reveal the depth of love Jesus had for his people: the sin-bound, oppressed, possessed, maimed, crippled, leperous, unled, impoverished, hungry, outcast, diseased, demented, discouraged and mournful amongst Israel and those outside the Covenant people of God. Luke weaves a great amount of detail about Jesus' life and ministry into his book including: 77 travel events (some with topography), miracles, people, oppositions (especially by lawyers, scribes and Pharisees), teachings including 43 of 100 parables, 21 of 34 prayer times, and more than 50 events fulfilling prophecy.

Marriage:

Muslim women cannot marry a non-Muslim, a Muslim man may marry a non-Muslim wife. Both are to insure any children will be raised as Muslims.

Temporary marriage was allowed in early Islam and Shia Muslims still allow it. Hadith 7:52

Male polygamy / polygyny is acceptable but not polyandry. Surah 4:3

Muhammad had more than four wives. Hadith 1:268

[Note: Polygamy refers to the practice of having more than one spouse. Polygyny refers to situations where one man has multiple wives, and polyandry refers to one woman with multiple husbands.]

Marriage:

Marriage is a covenant made before God and men between one consenting adult male and one consenting adult female. Matt 19:9; Mark 10:11; 1 Cor 7:28; 1 Tim 5:14; Heb 13:4

Believers are urged to marry other believers. 1 Cor 7:39; 2 Cor 6:14-16

One wife or husband: Gen 2:24; Matt 19:5; Eph 5:31; 1 Tim 3:2; 5:9; Titus 1:6

[Note: All polygamy forms are denounced.]

Very limited divorce: for abandonment, abuse, adultery. "But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causes her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced commits adultery." Matt 5:32

Approves of (or allows) rape, sexual assault, sex-slavery:

The expression of the Qur'an, "those whom your right hand possesses" (Surah 4:24; 23:6; 70:30) are slave women captured by Muslim conquerors and the import was for their Muslim male captors to rape the conquered, even in the presence of the captive women's husbands and family. And then to later sell them into slavery whether pregnant or not. Read the comments of Sahih Muslim 8.3432 & 8.3371, those of Sunan Abu Dawud 11.2150; Tafsir ibn Kathir, and of Sahih Bukhari 5.59.459 on Surah 4:24.

Christianity denounces rape, sexual assault, sex-slavery, adultery, incest, sexual perversions:

Women and children are valued as being made in God's image and are also among those for whom Christ came, died and rose again. Jesus raised a young girl from death, cast out 7 demons from Mary Magdalene, healed a woman's issue of blood, fed multitudes of men, women and children, blessed little children and babies and defended their right to draw near. [See: Women are of equal value to men]

"There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus." Gal 3:28

[Note: The tilth is prepared surface soil. For a women to be 'tilth' (Surah 2:223) it means her value is for 'the planting of seed'—for the production of offspring. She is not regarded as very human. And the child of her womb, if a female, is just so much 'surface soil' in which to also plant seed. And incest (sexual intercourse of near relations, Oxford Dictionary) is so common in Islam it is producing dire consequences. [See: UK Muslims defend Mufa'khathat - the legalized incest of infants, accessed 2/3/2015; Incest is Halal in Islam, accessed 2/3/2015; THE COST OF ISLAMIC INCEST, accessed 2/3/2015; Incest in Islam, accessed 2/3/2015; ... putting hundreds of children at risk, accessed 2/3/2015; etc.]

The Qur'an commands to kill mischief makers and apostates:

On this basis "honor killings" are permitted and not punished. Surah 5:32-33

The Muslim concept of "shirk," the unforgivable sin (Surah 5:72), which is the belief that someone other than Allah is the true God. Sahih Bukhari 9.84.57-58, 64, 72; etc.

Death to apostates (those who leave Islam), Hadith 9:57

Promotes life and reconciliation:

Men, women and children are valued as being made in God's image and are also among those for whom Christ came, died and rose again.

"Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift." Matt 5:24

"And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation. ... and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God." 2 Cor 5:18-20

"And when he had called the people unto him with his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's, the same shall save it." Mark 8:34-35

Do not freely ask:

Free inquiry into Islamic history is discouraged.

"When My servants question thee concerning Me ..." Surah 2:186

"O you who have believed, do not ask about things which, if they were revealed to you, it would be harmful to you." Surah 5:101

"He is who has sent down on you the book; some of its verses are decisive. Those are the mother of the book and others are ambiguous. So those whose hearts deviate, so they will follow what is ambiguous of it, desiring the sedition and desring its interpretation, and no one knows its interpretation except Allah. And those deeply rooted in knowledge say, 'We believed in it, all of it from our Lord.' But none will remember except those who have understanding." Surah 3:7

Freely ask:

Christians are encouraged to ask questions and seek further understanding: to validate the reasons for their belief, to glorify God, to improve themselves, to help others, to teach others.

"Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: For every one that asks receives; and he that seeks finds; and to him that knocks it shall be opened." Matt 7:7-8

"If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraids not; and it shall be given him." James 1:5

"Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven. But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven." Matt 10:32-33

"Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool." Isa 1:18

"Yet they seek me daily, and delight to know my ways, as a nation that did righteousness, and forsook not the ordinance of their God: they ask of me the ordinances of justice; they take delight in approaching to God." Isa 58:2

"I love them that love me; and those that seek me early shall find me." Proverbs 8:17

"And ye shall seek me, and find me, when ye shall search for me with all your heart." Jeremiah 29:13

Seek ye the Lord, all ye meek of the earth, which have wrought his judgment; seek righteousness, seek meekness: it may be ye shall be hid in the day of the Lord's anger." "Zeph 2:3

[Note: Should anyone believe in it without understanding it, without knowing its interpretation? Is this any way to learn about Allah and the way to eternal life? When the honest inquirer does learn about Islam (in the Qur'an and the Hadiths, and the history behind them both; the teachings of Muhammad in the Hadiths; the conquests of Muhammad, and his behavior; the circular reasoning of Islam's defenders and philosophers; the planned terrorism to non-Muslims, the conquest and slavery of people, the raping of females, the mistreatment of non-Muslims; et cetera) he will not remain a Muslim. For these reasons, many Muslim imams, scholars and even professors at Al-Azhar University have become Christians.]

Ministry of Muhammad:
[First, see: Morality]

Most use Surah 33:40 to promote there is no further prophet than Muhammad.

Historically, Muslims derive their Islamic ethics from the Qur'an and the Hadith. The Qur'an contains several commands Muhammad's followers must obey. The Hadith presents Muhammad as the exemplary human whom Muslims must imitate in all respects. "Muhammad was only a mortal being commissioned by God to teach the word of God and lead an exemplary life." ... "He stands in history as the best model for man in piety and perfection. He is a living proof of what man can be and of what he can accomplish in the realm of excellence and virtue." (Islam in Focus, Hammuda Abdalati, Indianapolis, IN: Amana Publications, 1978, p.8.) [See: Morality; Asserts that Muhammad's character and actions show the ideal man]

The teaching, behavior and conduct of Muhammad is revealed in the Hadiths. The first biography Sirat Rasul Allah, by Ibn Ishaq was preserved through Ibn Hisham who admits in the introduction that he altered the story about Muhammad. Because it was too sordid, Ibn Hisham simply ommited those parts (Hisham's notes; Guillaume, Life of Muhammad, 691).

[Note: Does that make the rest of Ibn Hisham's work honest? Does he then tell the truth about the rest of Muhammad's life and behavior? Is this not a form of the Islamic practice of taqiyya and kitman? See: Morality]


Muhammad and his men were involved in about 80+ "armed incidences" during the life of Muhammad - the majority raids for riches, captives for extortion, slaves, etc. The website www.1000mistakes.com lists 60+ of them. He died while planning an attack directed upon Israel.

Muhammad had 11 long time wives, 16 short time wives, 2 concubines, and 7 not known if he was formally married to. They are all listed in www.1000mistakes.com and Why Did Mohammed Get So Many Wives?. In addition he raped at least 2 captives (Rayhana bint Amr and Safiyya bint Huayay).

[Note: Such behavior by Muhammad that it is not nice to tell! What kind of 'seal of the prophets' is this for a Muslim to pattern his life after? Secrets of the Koran]


Muhammad was unable to read or write, but he began to dictate words which altered a large segment of humanity. Upon his death there was a struggle for subsequent leadership. The largest Muslim sect, Sunni with four schools, (~80%) accept the election of Abu Bakr as first kalifa and his caliphate. The Shia sect (10-15%) and the Ahmadi sect and others (5-10%) believe that authority in early Islam passed through Muhammad's bloodline and promote Ali's lineage (his nephew) as rightful kalifa. This caused the first major split among Muslim adherents.

After Muhammad's death, military conquests enabled the growth of Islam into several large empires. The practice of polygamy along with sexual use of female captives enabled larger families which has contributed to the numeric growth of Islam.

Ministry of Jesus:

Jewish culture and Christian culture carefully preserved the replication of the autograph texts by exacting processes to maintain the integrity of both the Old and New Testaments. [See: God is able to preserve the Manuscripts]

The life, ministry, death and resurrection of Jesus are preserved in the four Gospels, with some references and quotations in Acts, the Epistles and Revelation.

"And he went through the cities and villages, teaching, and journeying toward Jerusalem. Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that be saved? And he said unto them, Strive to enter in at the strait gate: for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able. When once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us; and he shall answer and say unto you, I know you not whence ye are." Luke 13:22-25

"Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me." Matt 16:24; Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23

[See context] "Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me." Matt 19:21; Mark 10:21; Luke 18:22

"Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life." John 8:12

"I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep. ... As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep." John 10:11, 15

"My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me." John 10:27

"Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." John 15:13

"Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many." Matt 20:28

"For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many." Mark 10:45

"If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will my Father honour." John 12:26

"This spake he, signifying by what death [Peter] should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me." John 21:19

"By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all." Heb 10:10

"Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren." 1 John 3:16

"There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust out. And they shall come from the east, and from the west, and from the north, and from the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God." Luke 13:28-29

[Read the 4 Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John]

[Note: If Allah was abundant in generosity, his mercy incomparable, his love for mankind beyond measure, then why did Muhammad, in following Allah, send men to destroy other people groups instead of rescuing them and gently teaching them? Why were Muslims taught that Muhammad would never wage war unless defending the ummah, (nation) that he only fought to elevate the status of women and the downtrodden? Why did he do multiple raids on caravans, have a child bride, marry Zainab, have black magic cast upon him, assassinate and torture others, and more ...? Why did he permit barbarous men in war to rape and pillage the women and young virgins? (Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Daud, Sunan Tirmidhi (Jami at-Tirmidhi), Sunan Ibn Majah, Sunan Nisai)

Why do Islamists ask for mercy upon Muhammad? Are they supposed to intercede for him? Why does he need peace prayed over him by millions in Islam? Wasn't he good enough? Did he fail to provide for his own salvation? If Muhammad failed to have peace and assurance, then can you have peace and assurance? Is this too much to ask? Why is prophet Muhammad still dead while the prophet Jesus (Isa) died and rose again?]

We affirm that repentance for past and present sins requires a confession before God, that faith in Jesus' sacrificial death and resurrection to remove those sins involves a crying out for mercy and a calling on the Lord along with a faithful trust in Him. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. Rom 10:13 And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold. But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved. Matt 24:12-13

Lord, I have greatly sinned and I am sorry. I ask that the blood of Jesus be a covering for my sins and a healer of my soul. Take me and put your spirit of holiness in me, change me to be like your dear Son Jesus Christ, I pray. Amen.


Information about Islam:

The origin of the name Allah: Is "Allah" Just Another Name for God?; A Reply to Shibir Ally's Attack on Dr. Robert Morey; these sites claims Pagan authority for the names Al-Lat, al-Uzza, and Manat as Mother Goddesses. www.mothergoddess.com/Gmiddleeast.html, accessed 2002; and Arab Trinity: Al-Uzza, Al-Lat and Menat

"There is always a chance that Al'Lat did become linked with a lunar cult at some point, but little evidence to suggest that she or her sisters were moon-goddesses. On the whole, the pattern presented here suggests that Al'Lat is essentially a chthonic mother-goddess, a deity of the underworld also associated with fidelity and covenants - a later form of Ereshkigal, who has retained many of her older attributes, albeit in a slightly distorted form." [See for references: www.indigogroup.co.uk/edge/blston2.htm]

Extensive Index to Qur'an: answering-islam.org/Index/index.html

Glossary of Islamic terms: www.islam101.com/selections/glossaryA.html

Facts about Islam and the Qur'an: www.americanthinker.com/articles/2011/05/the_truth_about_islam_and_book.htm

Islam: Goals, Insights and Background

The three Islam holy sites:
Kaba (The Holiest Mosque of Islam) - Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
The Prophet's Mosque - Medina, Saudi Arabia.
The Dome of the Rock - Jerusalem, Israel

Books: (soft to strong presentation)

Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus: A Devout Muslim Encounters Christianity, Nabeel Qureshi, Zondervan, 2014

Islam and the Bible: Why Two Faiths Collide, David Goldman, Moody Publishers, 2004

Exposing the Truth about the Qur'an: The Revelation of Error, Vol 1 & 2, Usama K. Dakdok, Usama Dakdok Publishing, LLC, Venice FL, 2013;

Slavery, Terrorism and Islam, Peter Hammond, Frontline Fellowship USA, 2005

Secrets of the Koran, Don Richardson, Regal Publishers, 2003

Information about Christianity:

The Bible names of God: The Bible Names Of God

Books:

Christianity for Skeptics, Steve Kumar, Jonathan Sarfati, Creation Book Publishers, 2012

The Stranger on the Road to Emmaus, John R. Cross, GoodSeed International, 2012