""

Brian Kuehmichel
October 2002, updated June 2003




Since the later 1800's many criticisms have been leveled against the Bible concerning its historical reliability. The critics claim that there is a lack of evidence from outside sources to confirm the Biblical record. Many scholars take the position that the Bible is 'kerygma' (proclamation) a religious book, it is biased, and that it cannot be trusted unless we have corroborating evidence from extra-Biblical sources. In other words, the Bible is considered guilty until proven innocent. The Biblical account is doubted due to a supposed lack of outside evidence. This is a reversal of the standard applied to other ancient documents, even though many, if not most, have a religious element. The non-Biblical documents are considered to be accurate, unless sufficient evidence is brought to show that they are not. Certainly, every incident in the Bible is not possible to verify. But the discoveries of archaeology documented since the mid 1800's have demonstrated the historical honesty and integrity of the Biblical narrative to great detail. An archaeologist has demonstrated from the archaeological evidence that the Bible is reliable as a historical document. David M. Rohl, "Pharaohs and Kings" (Crown Publishers, Inc. New York, 1995 ISBN 0 609 80130 9)   Below are many examples:

Background Information

Maps:

www.execulink.com/~wblank/keyway07.htm, www.biblestudy.org/maps/main.html, www.bible-history.com/subcat.php?id=22, www.bible.ca/maps/

Pictorial Library of Bible Lands with more than 500 .jpg images:

www.bibleplaces.com/piclib1galilee.htm, www.antiquityofman.com/archaeology_photos.html

Encyclopedia links to individuals and places named below:

christiananswers.net/dictionary/

Links to archaeology pictures:

www.biblehistory.net/Links.htm, www.tfba.org/finds.php, www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Surveys.html#Captions, www.jcsm.org/Israel1997/PicturesofIsrael.htm

Excellent overview of archaeology and its limitations:

www.imja.com/RPrice.html, www.icoc.org.uk/features/spotlight/spotlight_mcp07.htm

Additional research sites (below) link


Old Testament link

Old Testament events and locations
compiled by Brian Kuehmichel©

New Testament link

New Testament events and locations
compiled by Brian Kuehmichel©

Old Testament


The base of the Tower of Babel (Marduk Ziggurat) where language was confused (Genesis 11:1-9).

www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a021.html

www.cyberschool.k12.or.us/~wallace/artline/maintextancient_near_east.htm

ll4.closed.eduweb.co.uk/library/html/art/rm/pw/article.html?KEY=RPW2769&srchpage=epwbrs&backpage=%2fcache%2fwebsch%2fepwbrs%2ffLsru%2bvqcujud%2b%5fddYQbcb%5fWbM.1.html


Sumerian tablets record a confusion of language not unlike the happenings at the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11:1-90).

www.crystalinks.com/babylonian.html &

www.crystalinks.com/babyloniancreation.html



The most documented Biblical event is the world-wide flood described in Genesis 6-9. A number of Babylonian documents have been discovered which describe the same flood.

The Sumerian King List lists kings who reigned for long periods of time, tells of a great flood, and following the flood their Sumerian kings ruled for much shorter periods of time. This is consistent with the pattern found in the Bible where men had long life spans before the flood and shorter life spans after the flood. The 11th tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic speaks of an ark, animals taken on the ark, birds sent out during the course of the flood, the ark landing on a mountain, and a sacrifice offered after the ark landed. www.mazzaroth.com/ChapterThree/TowerOfBabel.htm

There are more than 16 fragments and one nearly complete copy of the Sumerian King List found at different places at different times. The first fragment was discovered in the temple library at Nippur, Iraq, at the turn of the century and was published in 1906. The most complete copy, the Weld-Blundell prism, was purchased on the antiquities market shortly after World War I and is now in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England. For a thorough discussion of the Sumerian King List and its Biblical implications, see "The Antediluvian Patriarchs and the Sumerian King List," by Raul Lopez, in the CEN Technical Journal 12 (3) 1998, pp. 347-57.

The Story of Adapa tells of a test for immortality involving food, similar to the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.



Sumerian tablets, the Weld-Blundell Prism, record the confusion of language as we have in the Biblical account of the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11:1-9 ). There was an early age when all mankind spoke the same language. Speech was then confused by the god Enki, lord of wisdom. The Babylonians had a similar account in which the gods destroyed a temple tower and "scattered them abroad and made strange their speech."

www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/sumking.html

www.ashmol.ox.ac.uk/ash/faqs/q001/q001006.html



These cities mentioned in Genesis 10:10-11 have been found:

Erech

emuseum.mnsu.edu/archaeology/sites/middle_east/erech.html

wes-sun.portland.georgefox.edu/courses/bst550/reports/Jbartlett/Erech.html

Accad

allserv.rug.ac.be/~kverhoef/

www.bible-history.com/past/stele_of_naramsin_accad_2250_BC.html

Nineveh

www.archaeology.org/online/features/nineveh/

www.atour.com/~history/1800/20000821d.html

www.yale.edu/yup/books/074182.htm

Calah

www.msn.fullfeed.com/~scribe/digest20021.htm#18

http://216.239.53.100/search?q=cache:avB9eLarG5AC:www.wac.uct.ac.za/wac4/symposia/abstracts?..

Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed by fiery brimstone (Genesis 18:16- 19:29).

www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a007.html

www.arkdiscovery.com/sodom_&_gomorrah.htm

www.biblerevelations.org/ronwyatt/update_sodom_gomorrah.htm



The discovery of the Clay Tablet at Ebla written around 2300B.C. and found in northern Syria in the 1970's demonstrate that the names and places in the Patriarchal accounts are authentic. Even ancient customs reflected in the stories of the Patriarchs have also been found in clay tablets from Nuzi and Mari. The name "Caanan" and the word "tehom" used in Genesis 1:2 were also used in their vocabulary.

www.mazzaroth.com/ChapterFour/Ebla.htm

www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/pictures/2002/sept.htm



Cave of the Patriarchs burial at Machpelah (Genesis 23:9-19).

www.wyattnewsletters.com/machpelah/mcplaintro.htm

www.us-israel.org/jsource/Judaism/machpelah.html

www.altars.org/0027arch.html



The location of  Zoar mentioned by Lot (Genesis 19:19-23).

www.mystae.com/restricted/streams/thera/canaan.html

debate.org.uk/topics/history/rohl-1.htm



Excavations of Ur (Genesis 11: 28-31) .

www.archaeology.org/0003/abstracts/museum.html

emuseum.mnsu.edu/archaeology/sites/middle_east/ur.html

mcclungmuseum.utk.edu/specex/ur/ur.htm



The city of Dothan near where Joseph went to meet his brothers (Genesis 37:17).

www.gordonconwell.edu/dothan/aasor/aasor1.html

www.gcts.edu/dothan/

 

The earliest known reference to Israelites says that they were "laid waste". It appears on the Merneptah Stele dating to 1209 B.C.

www.biblical-archaeology.net/

www.ucalgary.ca/~eslinger/genrels/ANE.Empires.html

www.nmhschool.org/tthornton/hebrew_bible_era_dates.htm



The Ten Commandments in stone.

www.webcom.com/mhc/archaeology/decalogue-introduction.html

economics.sbs.ohio-state.edu/jhm/arch/loslunas.html

economics.sbs.ohio-state.edu/jhm/arch/decalog.html



The Deir Alla text from the seer Balaam, son of Beor found at Deir Alla excavation in 1967 and published in 1976 records a prophecy similar to that found in Scripture (Numbers 24 ch).

www.gnmagazine.org/issues/gn10/archaeologyexodusexit.htm

www.nisbett.com/people/bp-balaam.htm

www.biblemysteries.com/lectures/hiram.htm

faculty.washington.edu/snoegel/Heb42802.syll.html

JoAnn Hackett, "The Balaam Text from Deir Alla" (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1980)

www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a014.html



The walls of Jericho falling down when Israel captured Jericho under Joshua (Joshua 6).

www.bibleplaces.com/jericho.htm

www.wyattnewsletters.com/exodus/ex21.htm and the next page

www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/magazines/docs/v21n2_jericho.asp

www.tektonics.org/tekton_05_04_04.html#jericho

www.crystalinks.com/jerico.html

emuseum.mnsu.edu/archaeology/sites/middle_east/jericho.html

Did Jerichos Walls Fall?



The palace at Jericho where Eglon, king of Moab, was assassinated by Ehud known as Tel-el-Hesy (Judges 3:15-30).

www.encyclopedia.com/html/E/Eglon.asp

www.slider.com/enc/17000/Eglon.htm

www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0807463.html ~ other sites mentioned here



The Hittites were once thought to be a Biblical legend, until their capital and records were discovered by Dr. Hugo Winckler at Bogazkoy, Turkey. Excavation of these ruins by a German expedition began in 1906. (Genesis 15:20).

www.crystalinks.com/hittites.html

www.asia-minor.org/Hittiteempire.htm

archaeology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://i%2Dcias.com/e.o/hittites.htm



The Mari tablets from the Euphrates mentions king Arriyuk, or Arioch of Genesis 14, and lists the towns of Nahor and Harran (from Genesis 24:10), as well as the names Benjamin and Habiru.

www.cumber.edu/acad/rel/hbible/HebrewBible/hbgloss/m.htm

debate.org.uk/topics/history/bib-qur/bibdoc.htm

www.angelfire.com/nt/theology/13babyln.html



The Assyrian king Sargon's palace was discovered in Khorsabad, Iraq. His capture of Ashdod was recorded on the palace walls plus fragments of a stela memorializing the victory were found at Ashdod itself. (Isaiah 20:1).

members.shaw.ca/mark.64/hcib/history.html

www.varchive.org/tac/ashdod.htm

www.evidenceforchristianity.org/Libary/Articles/Bible/Reliablility.htm



Until recently, many scholars doubted the existence of the Philistines. But, as with so much of the biblical text, the more archeologists dig, the more they confirm the historical character of the biblical narratives.

www.my-edu2.com/EDU/arch1.htm General archaeology sites

home.uleth.ca/geo/philhp.htm See sub-links to Philistine cities

www.ajaonline.org/archive/104.3/barako_tristan_j.html
www.bridgesforpeace.com/publications/dispatch/archaeology/ 

www.jewishmag.com/23mag/arch/arch.htm Historical overview



The Philistine city Ashkelon referred to in the Bible has been found. (Judges 14:19).

www.fas.harvard.edu/~semitic/ashkelon/ashkelon_dig2.html

www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/ASH/NN_Spr95/NN_Spr95.html

joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/ancientbabylon/id23.html



The location of Ekron (Joshua 13:3) is known because of an inscription there bearing the title of "Achish... king of Ekron" as well as Ashdod (Joshua 11:1).

home.uleth.ca/geo/philhp.htm See sub-links to Philistine cities

www.ajaonline.org/archive/104.3/barako_tristan_j.html

www.bridgesforpeace.com/publications/dispatch/archaeology/

www.jewishmag.com/23mag/arch/arch.htm Historical overview

www.puertorico.com/forums/showthread.php3?threadid=8805



Gibeah where Saul had a fortress has been found. (1 Sam. 10:26; 14:2).

www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1993/PSCF12-93Yamauchi.html

www.abbottfamily.clara.co.uk/gibeahhistory.htm



The east gate of Shechem where Gaal and Zebul watched the forces of Abimelech approach the city (Judges 9:34-38) and the Temple of Baal/El-Berith in Shechem, where funds were obtained to finance Abimelech's kingship and where the citizens of Shechem took refuge when Abimelech attacked the city (Judges 9:4, 46-49).

ancientneareast.tripod.com/Shechem.html

www.relst.uiuc.edu/Courses/106/MBpages/page13.html

www.us-israel.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/geo/Shechem.html



The vast and very important city of Hazor has been found. (Josh. 11:10).

www.concentric.net/~extraord/archaeology.htm

www.bridgesforpeace.com/publications/dispatch/archaeology

www.serve.com/archaeology/neast.html



The pool of Gibeon where the forces of David and Ishbosheth fought during the struggle for the kingship of Israel (2 Samuel 2:12-32) excavated by James Pritchard, 1956-62.

Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament” 1969.(ANET) ed. by James Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton University Press

www.bibleplaces.com/gibeon.htm

www.gnmagazine.org/issues/gn14/archaeol.html



David became Saul's enemy and fled to Achish the king of Gath (1 Samuel 21:10) who gave David the town of Ziklag (1 Samuel 27:6) and it remained in the hands of the kings of Judah from then on. This town has been identified and is located north west of Beersheba. Excavations uncovered Philistine pottery proving that it was once a Philistine town (Thompson, 1987).

www.zeitah.net/overview.html

Eleazar O's, "Explorations in the Negev and Sinai," Catalogue of the Bethsheba Sinai Museum, Showcase I item 2; showcase IV, items 1 and 4.



King David, Israel's second king, ca. 1010-970 BC, appears in two ninth century BC texts, the Tel Dan Inscription [The Tel Dan Stele (900-850 BC) View: image] and the Moabite stone (text) (2 Samuel 5:3) [The Meesha Stele (846 BC) View: image].

Bible and Spade (Autumn 1993, pp. 119-121, and Summer 1995, pp. 91-92); A.Biran - J.Naveh, "An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Tel Dan", IEJ 43 (1993), pp81-98.

www.ucg.org/articles/gn14/archaeol.html &

www.ucg.org/articles/gn39/ancient.html

www.geocities.com/Paris/LeftBank/5210/tel_dan.htm

www.restorationquarterly.org/Volume_037/rq03704willis.htm

www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a017.html

bible.crosswalk.com/Dictionaries/EastonBibleDictionary/ebd.cgi?number=T2586

www.piney.com/BabMoabite.html

home.earthlink.net/~zimriel/Mesha/

graal.co.uk/houseofdavid.html  &  www.ancient-hebrew.org/6_06.html with pictures



The revolt of Moab against Israel (2 Kings 1:1; 3:4-27) and tribe of Gad (Joshua 13:24-28) recorded on the Mesha or Moabite Inscription.

www.piney.com/BabMoabite.html

home.earthlink.net/~zimriel/Mesha/

www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=680&letter=M



Many thought the Biblical references to Solomon's or other king's wealth were greatly exaggerated. Recovered records from the past show that wealth in antiquity was concentrated with the king and Solomon's prosperity was entirely feasible. Between the years 1925-1943 archaeologists unearthed the remains of some of Solomon's or another king’s garrisons at Megiddo, in northern Palestine. It was here that archaeologists discovered the remains of horse stables capable of holding hundreds of horses, and the remains of the barracks for the king's chariot riders.

www.bibleworld.com/arch01.htm

"The Golden Treasures of Nimrud", Time, 30 Oct., 1989: 80-81.

www.ucg.org/articles/usbbp/ch2solomon.html

www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a017.html

www.furman.edu/~mcknight/galreg14.htm



An inscription discovered by archaeologists refers to "the House of Yahweh" i.e. Solomon's Temple at Jerusalem (1Kings 6)

www.excel.net/~hoy/t-inscr/tinscr.html

www.bib-arch.org/bswb_BAR/bswbba2902f1.html



The reign of Jeroboam as confirmed by the Shema Seal. This seal discovered from Meggido identifies its owner as a royal officer, "Shema the servant of Jereboam" (1Kings 12:20).

www.tau.ac.il/~archpubs/megiddo/bar.html &

www.tau.ac.il/~archpubs/megiddo/bar2.html

www.furman.edu/~bbibb/projects/israel2/generalpages/jereboam2.htm



The High Place at Tell Dan in Israel was located at Dan in 1979. (1Kings 12:25-29)

www.hope.edu/academic/religion/bandstra/RTOT/CH9/CH9_2A.HTM

www.ancient-hebrew.org/6_06.html

www.dabar.org/WWWinter/Land-Book-May-87.html



The royal palace at Samaria where the kings of Israel lived (1 Kings 20:43; 21:1, 2; 22:39; 2 Kings 1:2; 15:25).

www.varchive.org/tac/jeroboam.htm

www.crystalinks.com/samaria.html



The pool of Samaria where King Ahab's chariot was washed after his death (1 Kings 22:29-38) and Ahab's House of Ivory (1 Kings 22:39).

Huse, Scott M., The Collapse of Evolution (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1997, p. 129

www.ourfatherlutheran.net/biblehomelands/palestine/samaria.htm



The fall of Samaria (2 Kings 17:3-6, 24; 18:9-11) to Sargon II, king of Assyria, as recorded on his palace walls. And the defeat of Ashdod by Sargon II (Isaiah 20:1), as recorded on his palace walls.

www.bibleworld.com/arch01.htm

http://ancienthistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ozemail.com.au%2F%7Ehshemon%2Fsargon.htm

www.betnahrain.org/Gallery/Ancient_Assyrian_Art/38_sargon2.htm

www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/04/wam/ht04wam.htm

www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/QTVR96/AS/AsL.html



The record of Shalmaneser who made Hoshea son of Elah a tributary king (2Kings 17:3 & 18:9) written upon a multi-faced Black Obelisk.

www.usask.ca/antiquities/Collection/Black_Obelisk.html

mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Assyria/Inscra01.html

akak.essortment.com/blackobelisk_rlmt.htm

www.betnahrain.org/Gallery/Ancient_Assyrian_Art/12_black_obelisk.htm



King Ahaz's Clay Seal and of his servant Ushna (2 Kings 16:1-2).

www.ucg.org/articles/gn19/kingsof.html

www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/98-02-27-01.all.html

www.msn.fullfeed.com/~scribe/digest19981.htm



Tiglath Pilesar as mentioned in 2 Kings 15:29-30; 16:7-9.

campus.northpark.edu/history/classes//Sources/Tiglathpileser.html

www.dia.org/collections/ancient/mesopotamia/50.32.html

ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_tilgath.htm



The Gihon spring (1 Chronicles 11:6-7 ) and Hezekiah's Tunnel dug by King Hezekiah to provide water during the Assyrian siege (2 Kings 20:20; 2 Chronicles 32:30).

The Biblical World: A Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology, 1966, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, p. 373.

www.ohav.org/travel/hezekiahtunnel.html

jeru.huji.ac.il/eb26.htm

www.bibleplaces.com/warrenshaft.htm

www.varchive.org/schorr/extension.htm

www.gnmagazine.org/issues/gn19/kingsof.html

www.varchive.org/tac/siloam.htm

www.iktinos.org/archives/anet/7.html



The Pool of Heshbon (Song of Songs 7:4).

www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a005.html

ezek27.truepath.com/smithsonian.html



The military campaign of the Assyrian king Sennacherib against Judah recorded on the Taylor Prism (2Kings 18:13-16).

www.biblehistory.net/Chap23.htm

www.biblelight.org/arch7.htm



Assassination of Sennacherib by his own sons (2 Kings 19:37) recorded in the annals of his son Esarhaddon.

www.varchive.org/tac/esarh.htm

members.ozemail.com.au/~hshemon/esarhaddon.htm



Tablets were found showing that Belshazzar, king of Babylon, was Nabonidus' son and he served as Nabonidus' coregent in Babylon [View: image] and because of this authority Belshazzar could offer to make Daniel "third highest ruler in the kingdom" (Dan. 5:16).

www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a008.html

people.clemson.edu/~sf/books/apology/Chapter5.html

(In 1854, Sir Henry Rawlinson discovered some Babylonian records which made mention of Belshazzar, the son of King Abonidas. His relationship to Nebuchadnezzar was probably that of grandson. George Frederick Wright and Melvin Grove Kyle, "The Testimony of Archaeology to the Scriptures" in The Fundamentals (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, reprint), p. 118.)

www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/Behistun.asp



The royal palace in Babylon where King Belshazzar held the feast and Daniel interpreted the handwriting on the wall (Daniel ch 5) and Belshazzar's position (5:16).

emuseum.mnsu.edu/archaeology/sites/middle_east/babylon.html

www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/IS/SANDERS/PHOTOS/MESO/BABYLON/babylon13.html &

www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/IS/SANDERS/PHOTOS/MESO/BABYLON/babylon01.html

citd.scar.utoronto.ca/CITDPress/Holtorf/7.7.html

www.geocities.com/Area51/Cavern/5178/main.html

[and Babylon's Ishtar gate www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Ishtar_Gate.html]



The campaign into Israel by Pharaoh Shishak (1 Kings 14:25-26) recorded on the walls of the Temple of Amun in Thebes (Karnak), Egypt.

www.northforest.com/archaeology/shishak.html

www.biblemysteries.com/lectures/shishak.htm

www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a017.html



The siege of Lachish by Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:14, 17) recorded on the Lachish reliefs.

www.israel-mfa.gov.il/mfa/go.asp?MFAH00ve0

ancientneareast.tripod.com/Lachish_Lakhish.html

www.bibleplaces.com/lachish.htm


 

A plaque which once marked the burial place of King Uzziah of Judah (Isaiah 6:1) was found in a Russian museum on the Mount of Olives by E. L. Sukenik in 1931. The inscription reads, "Here were brought the bones of Uzziah, King of Judah - do not open." (Possibly because of leprosy.)

www.angelfire.com/nt/theology/Appx06.html &

www.israel.org/mfa/go.asp?MFAH00v50



The captivity of Jehoiachin, king of Judah, in Babylon (2 Kings 24:15-16), as recorded on the Babylonian Ration Records.

www.tektonics.org/tekton_05_05_01.html

www.biblehistory.net/Chap29.htm

www.phoenixdatasystems.com/goliath/c8.htm

www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/A-C/biblst/DJACcurrres/Postmodern1/Regnalfns.html



The fall of Nineveh as predicted by the prophets in the book of Nahum and Zephaniah (2:13-15) recorded on the Tablet of Nabopolasar.

joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/ancientbabylon/id23.html

www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/The_Babylonian_Chronicle.html



The fall of Jerusalem to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon (2 Kings 24:10-14) recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles.

www.library.yale.edu/exhibition/judaica/bcsml.3.html

www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/Rise_of_Nebuchadrezzar.htm

seminary.georgefox.edu/courses/bst550/reports/DStahlnecker/BM25127.html

seminary.georgefox.edu/courses/bst550/reports/DStahlnecker/Chronicles.html#tablets

home.earthlink.net/~ironmen/primary.htm



Archaeologists recently found a clay impression from Jeremiah's time bearing not only Baruch's name, but apparently even his fingerprint! (Jeremiah 36:1-32; 51:59-64). These facts confirm even some of the tiniest details of the Bible – four people mentioned in the book of Jeremiah who lived in Jerusalem.

Tsvi Schneider, who in 1991 served as assistant librarian at Hebrew University's Institute of Archaeology, writes about a seal with Baruch's name on it: “The first and best-known biblical name to be identified on a bulla [a lump of clay bearing a seal impression] is Baruch son of Neriah. Baruch was the scribe, loyal friend and political ally of the prophet Jeremiah. The inscription is in three lines and reads: ‘Belonging to Berekhyahu/son of Neriyahu/the scribe.' The bulla refers to Baruch by his full given name . . . Baruch son of Neriah, the seal impression tells us, was a scribe. Four episodes in the Book of Jeremiah mention Baruch, son of Neriah the scribe" (Biblical Archaeological Review, July-August 1991, p. 27).

The librarian explains that the names of three other people from Jeremiah's day, including Baruch's brother, appear in other clay impressions and seals. "It is interesting that chapter 36 of the Book of Jeremiah also contains the names of two other people whose seals have been impressed in surviving bullae: 'Yerahme'el son of the king' and 'Gemariah son of Shaphan.'"

The seal of Seriah, Baruch's brother, has been found as well. Seriah's name appears several times in Jeremiah 51 (verses 59-64). "The seal reads, in two lines, 'Belonging to Seriahu/Neriyahu' . . . Seriah was the brother of Baruch, Jeremiah's scribe; both Seriah and Baruch were the sons of Neriah and grandsons of Mahseiah." (Jeremiah 32:12, 51:59) (Ibid, p. 30.)

www.gnmagazine.org/issues/gn20/downfall.html
www.biblehistory.net/Chap25.htm



Fall of Babylon to the Medes and Persians (Daniel 5:30-31) recorded on the Cyrus Cylinder.

oznet.net/cyrus/cyrus_c.htm

www.livius.org/ct-cz/cyrus_I/babylon05.html

www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/A-C/biblst/DJACcurrres/Postmodern1/Regnalfns.html



Freeing captives in Babylon by Cyrus the Great (Ezra 1:1-4; 6:3-4) recorded on the Cyrus Cylinder.

www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/539cyrus1.html

www.sedona.net/pahlavi/tablets.html

www.library.yale.edu/judaica/exhibits/webarch/front/BabylonianCollection.html



The royal palace in Susa where Esther was queen of the Persian king Xerxes (Esther 1:2; 2:3, 5, 9, 16).

www.livius.org/pen-pg/persepolis/persepolis.html

(The gate leading to the King's palace in Susa has been extensively excavated. A trilingual inscription has been found which attributes the construction of the gate to Darius, it says, "Xerxes the King says, By the grace of Ahuramazda, the Gate, Darius the King made it, he who was my father". The gate is 131 by 92 feet; it contains two large central rooms leading to the palace and two side rooms. Four columns supported the central hall.)

www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/IMAGES/ASF/11A1_72dpi.html



The royal gate at Susa at the palace where Esther's cousin Mordecai (Marduka in Persian) sat (Esther 2:19, 21; 3:2, 3; 4:2; 5:9, 13; 6:10, 12).

www.key2persia.com/iran_facts.htm

www.souldevice.org/christian_archeology.html

www.biblequery.org/esth.htm

http://www.shef.ac.uk/~biblst/Department/Staff/BibsResearch/DJACcurrres/Postmodern1/Mordecai.html



The method and destruction of the city of Tyre is accurate (Ezekiel 26)

www.lebanon.com/tourism/tyre.htm &

emuseum.mnsu.edu/archaeology/sites/middle_east/tyre.html



Gezer was destroyed by Pharoah of Egypt in 1Kings 9:16 (mentioned 13 times in Joshua 10:33 thru 1Chronicles 20:4)

www.bibleplaces.com/gezer.htm

www.huc.edu/newspubs/press/israel.shtml

www.andrews.edu/ARCHAEOLOGY/institute/fieldwork/prelims/Gezer_1990.htm



New Testament


The existence of Jesus Christ as recorded by secular and Jewish References:  Josephus, Suetonius, Thallus, Pliny the Younger, the Jewish Talmud, Cornelius Tacitus, Lucian of Samosata, Phlegon, Mara Bar-Serapion, Babylonian Talmud, Macrobius, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Juvenal, Seneca, and Hierocles; and by Christian References:  Lucian and Julius Africanus, Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Quadratus, The Epistle of Barnabas, Aristides, Justin Martyr, and Hegesippus.

geneva.rutgers.edu/src/faq/x-outof-nt.txt

home.gowyo.com/creation/ftb16.htm

www.webedelic.com/church/figuref.htm

myweb.tiscali.co.uk/praeternatural/paganpropheciesofcomingofchrist.htm

www.carlislecofc.org/extrabiblical.htm



Herod, John the Baptist, Jesus, James, the brother of Jesus, Ananias-the High Priest, and King Festus are mentioned by the historian Josephus.

www.josephus-1.com/



The Palace of Herod at Caesarea (when Jesus was an infant) and where Paul was kept under guard (Acts 23:33-35).

www.skidmore.edu/~j_bussma/Archaeology.htm

www.msn.fullfeed.com/~scribe/digest20014.htm



A Hebrew plaque in the ruins of Caesarea Maritima dating from the third century before Christ which made reference to the town of Nazareth (John 1:46) confirmed by family lists and tombs in vicinity 1962.

www.hum.huji.ac.il/dinur/links/Archaeology.htm

religion.rutgers.edu/iho/nazareth.html

www.msn.fullfeed.com/~scribe/digest19981.htm



John (2:1) distinguishes between the two cities named Cana -

Cana of Galilee - www.cana-of-galilee.com/ & www.christusrex.org/www1/ofm/mag/TSmgenB4.html

and Cana (Aenon) on the border of Phoenicia www.ourfatherlutheran.net/biblehomelands/galilee/kefarkana/kafarcana.htm &

www.ccel.org/s/schaff/hcc1/htm/i.XII.83.htm



Capernaum was found where Jesus cured a man with an unclean spirit (Mark 1:21-28) and delivered the sermon on the bread of life (John 6:25-59) with its synagogue and the house of Simon Peter where Jesus healed Peter's mother-in-law & others (Matthew 8:14-16).

faculty.smu.edu/dbinder/archaeol.html

www.us-israel.org/jsource/Archaeology/capesyn.html

www.israelrevealed.com/newsletter/winter2001/footsteps.htm

religion.rutgers.edu/iho/capernaum.html



The foundation of the synagogue at Capernaum where Jesus cured a man with an unclean spirit and delivered the sermon on the bread of life (Mark 1:21-28).

www.us-israel.org/jsource/Archaeology/capesyn.html

religion.rutgers.edu/iho/capernaum.html



Bethsaida where the disciples went by boat (Mark 6:45).

www.unomaha.edu/~betsaida/location.htm

faculty.smu.edu/dbinder/archaeol.html

www.msn.fullfeed.com/~scribe/digest19982.htm



Jacob's well at Sychar of Samaria where Jesus spoke to the Samaritan woman (John 4).

www.born2serve.org/files/epapers/tell_balatah.pdf

www.gnmagazine.org/issues/gn25/ministry.html

www.us-israel.org/jsource/vie/Nablus.html

www.bible-history.com/Samaritans/SAMARITANSSamaria.htm



The Pool of Bethesda in Jerusalem where Jesus healed a crippled man (John 5:1-14).

The "Pool with five porticoes" was discovered in Jerusalem.

www.emmanuel-info.com/en/dossiers/histo1.htm

clawww.lmu.edu/faculty/fjust/Photos/Israel-Pools.htm



The Pool of Siloam in Jerusalem where Jesus healed a blind man (John 9:1-4).

clawww.lmu.edu/faculty/fjust/Photos/Israel-Pools.htm

jeru.huji.ac.il/eb26.htm



John distinguishes between the two cities named Bethany (1:28; 11:18)

www.urantiabook.org/graphics/intro.htm &

www.mun.ca/rels/restmov/texts/bjohnson/clc01/CLC0129.HTM



Prefectus Pontius Pilate who condemned Jesus to torture and crucifixion was verified in 1961. [View: tablet that reads "Tiberieum, (Pon)tius Pilatus, (Praef)ectus Iuda(eae)."]

www.cptryon.org/xpipassio/passio/arch/5pil.html

www.bible-history.com/pontius_pilate/pilateArchaeology.htm

www.bible-history.com/empires/pilate.html



The "lithostroton", or "Gabbatha", the paved area of the praetorium [View: stone pavement] where Jesus was held and tried during his appearance before Pilate was found in 1925. (John 19:13).

www.emmanuel-info.com/en/dossiers/histo1.htm

askelm.com/temple/t991001.htm



Method of Roman crucifixion detailed in John's Gospel confirmed in 1968 -

www.puertorico.com/forums/showthread.php3?threadid=8805 &

www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/jesus/art/crucifixion.gif &

www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/jesus/art/nailinfoot.jpg



All regions, cities, and places named in the Gospel of John.

clawww.lmu.edu/faculty/fjust/John/Archaeology.html



Grave sites are known for Caiaphas the High Priest (John 18:13). [View: Ossuary]

www.easycart.net/ecarts/bib-arch/5097.html &

www.msn.fullfeed.com/~scribe/digest19993.htm; Caesar Augustus (Luke 2:1-7)

www.dl.ket.org/latin3/grammar/inscriptions.htm &

Fitzgerald, Ian; "Cyrus the Great in Parsargadae, Iran" (Isaiah 45); History Today 5/01/1998

www.cse.msu.edu/~borzoo/non-acd/iran.htm;



The tribunal area at Corinth where Paul was tried (Acts 18:12-17).

corinth.sas.upenn.edu/links.html

www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/vor?lang=en&full=0&alts=1&group=typecat&lookup=Corinth

gbgm-umc.org/umw/corinthians/city.stm



The theater at Ephesus where the riot of silversmiths occurred (Acts 19:29). (The Golden house of Nero Acts 25:10; 1 Peter 2:13)

ancienthistory.about.com/cs/nero/ )

www.focusmm.com/aceph_0.htm

worldnetva.pwnet.org/turkey/logs/6/index.shtml

www.archaeology.org/online/features/romanworld/

www.csanet.org/newsletter/may96/nl059603.html



A marble inscription found August 6th, 2000 on the island of Cyprus that supports the Biblical assertion that Apostle Paul preached there.

www.ad2000.com.au/articles/1999/oct1999p4_292.html

www.cwnews.com/Browse/1999/08/10859.htm



We find evidence that Quirinius was governor of Syria (Luke 2:1-3) around 7 B.C. confirmed by coin and based on an inscription found in Antioch ascribing to Quirinius this post. As a result of this finding, it is now supposed that he was governor twice - once in 7 B.C. and the other time in 6 A.D. Elder, John. Prophets, Idols and Diggers. Indianapolis, New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1960. p159,160

hometown.aol.com/StarCards/ http://216.239.39.100/search?q=cache:WuWUdL2fyoIC:www.jkerncoins.com/ads/Kern112601.pdf+%22Quirinius%22+AND+coin&hl=en&ie=UTF-8



The forcing of Jews to leave Rome during the reign of Claudius about A.D. 41-54 (Acts 18:2), as recorded by Suetonius.

www.earlychristianwritings.com/suetonius.html

mnatal.members.easyspace.com/mrnmisc/delectus/mrnsuetonius1.htm

www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/suetonius-claudius-worthington.html



The cities of Lycaonia included Iconium (Acts 14:6) confirmed as correct.

www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0830700.html &

2.1911encyclopedia.org/L/LY/LYCAONIA.htm



Sergus Paulus as proconsul of Cyprus.

www.ucg.org/articles/gn31/acts.html

www.apologeticspress.org/rr/rr1998/r&r9806a.htm

www.xenos.org/ct_outln/obj4.htm



Artemis temple, statues, and altar (Acts 19:27-28, 35).

www.turizm.net/cities/sardis/

www.harvard-magazine.com/issues/ma98/sardis.html

www.focusmm.com/aceph_35.htm

www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/tarih_en.asp?belgeno=3902



Additional notes


1. The archaeological discoveries have validated other numerous biblical references to people, places and events from the Old Testament showing its historical integrity.


2. The New Testament's historical account about places, people and events concerning both the Jews and the Romans who lived in the first century have been verified by archaeology. These facts provide strong evidence that the other Biblical accounts are also historically true.

www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook09.html


3. Plinius Secundus was governor of the Roman province of Bithynia (Turkey) in A.D. 112. In his Epistles X96 he states that these believers would not worship Emperor Trajan and would not curse their leader, Jesus Christ, even under extreme torture. Plinius described the Christians as: "people who loved the truth at any cost. It is impossible to believe that these people would willingly die for something they knew was a lie" or report anything but the truth about a matter.

www.pytlik.com/observe/deliverus/reason-02.html

www.christian-persecution.com/


4. Modern scholars now possess more than 5,000 manuscript copies of portions of the New Testament in the Greek language. In addition, there are an additional 15,000 manuscripts in other languages from the first few centuries of this era. No other important text, whether historical or religious, has more than a few dozen copies that have survived until our generation.

www.ici.edu/gql/reliable.html & biblefacts.org/history/oldtext.html

www.gospelcom.net/apologeticsindex/r14ac.html


5. Archaeological discoveries show that the Romans had a regular enrollment of taxpayers and also held a census every 14 years. This procedure was indeed begun under Augustus and the first took place in either 23-22B.C. or in 9-8 B.C. The latter would be the one to which Luke refers.

www.witja.com/witja/facts/wpi1400d.htm &

www.billpetro.com/HolidayHistory/hol/xmas/augustus2.html &

http://216.239.39.100/search?q=cache:AyxXjcB1TrkC:www.lion-publishing.co.uk/images/Handbook%2520LR%2520600%2520.pdf+%22Roman+census%22&hl=en&ie=UTF-8


6. Among other historical references of Luke is that of Lysanias the Tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1) at the beginning of John the Baptist's ministry in 27 A.D. The only Lysanias known to ancient historians was one who was killed in 36 B.C. However, an inscription found near Damascus speaks of "Freedman of Lysanias the Tetrarch" and is dated between 14 and 29 A.D.

Bruce, F.F. "Archaeological Confirmation of the New Testament." Revelation and the Bible. Edited by Carl Henry. Grand Rapids:Baker Book House 1969 p.321


7. When Paul wrote the book of Romans in Corinth, he mentioned the city treasurer, Erastus (Roman 16:23). During the excavations of Corinth in 1929, a pavement was found inscribed: ERASTVS PRO:AED:S:P:STRAVIT ("Erastus, curator of public buildings, laid this pavement at his own expense"). According to Bruce, the pavement quite likely existed in the first century A.D. and the donor and the man Paul mentions are probably one and the same.

Bruce, F.F. The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? Downers Gove; Intervarsity Press, 1964 p.95


8. Most of the ancient cities mentioned in the Book of Acts have been identified due to the many archaeological finds. The journeys of Paul can now be accurately traced as a result of these digs.

Albert, William F. Recent Discoveries in Bible Lands. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1955.

members.aol.com/saa4him/karch.htm

www.ualberta.ca/~ebenzvi/no_frames/Cyr_Jes.htm


9. Josephus complete works in English

www.ccel.org/j/josephus/JOSEPHUS.HTM & www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook09.html#Rome:MajorHistorians:CompleteTexts


10. Magdalen Papyri

www.equip.org/free/DJ028.htm


11. The location of Paul's shipwreck site from Acts 27:40

www.khouse.org/articles/biblestudy/20020401-413.html


12. Sixty-two Old Testament names confirmed -

www.adam.com.au/bstett/BHistoricityOfCharacters.htm


13. Grave of David www.unlimitedglory.org/israeltrip7.html &

asreligioes.globo.com/religiao_in/scripts/religiao.asp?idReligiao=5&tipo=2

and grave of Solomon www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a026.html


14. In 1977 an inscription mentioning Dan was found near the high place (1 Kings 12:28-29)

www.us-israel.org/jsource/Archaeology/dan.html


15. John (3:23) correctly identifies John the Baptist as being in Aeno.

www.htmlbible.com/kjv30/easton/east0113.htm &

www.studylight.org/dic/sbd/view.cgi?number=T137


16. A first century Galilean boat holding a crew of 13 was found in 1986.

homepage.mac.com/MichaelBurns/Israel/Pages/184.html &

www.furman.edu/~mcknight/pap4.htm &

homepage.mac.com/MichaelBurns/Israel/index_4.html#184.html &

homepage.mac.com/cejjrmd/travel/14syriajordanisrael.html


17. The house of Peter where Jesus healed Peter's mother-in-law and others

www.christusrex.org/www1/ofm/sites/TScphous.html &

www.furman.edu/~mcknight/pap1.htm &

www.dur.ac.uk/StChads/gal.htm


18. Millstones (Mark 9:42, Luke 17:2) unearthed in Capernaum

www.meccaresource.com/israel_palestine.html


19. A stone tablet speaking of the repair of Solomon's temple has been found

www.biblenetworknews.com/europe_middleeast/011403_israel.html &

www.torahwellsprings.org/news.htm &

www.onejerusalem.org/ItemDetail.asp?Language=English&ItemID=1331 &

www.jafi.org.il/agenda/2001/english/wk4-13/11.asp



Addendum:

A. A Large-Stone Structure has been found north of the City of David in 2005 by Dr. Eilat Mazar with the 5-foot-long proto-Aeolic capital that must have once been part of the building and a bulla by Yair Shoham that reads "Belonging to Yehuchal ben (the son of) Shelemiyahu ben Shovi" who was sent by the king to the prophet Jeremiah to pray for the people (Jeremiah 37:3)

www.bib-arch.org/e-features/king-davids-palace.asp


B. A city with two gates is under excavation called Ha'arayim (Sha'arayim) [aka Khirbet Qeiyafa] in the valley of Elah located near the battle between David and Goliath (1 Samuel 17:52)

qeiyafa.huji.ac.il/ &

www.religiontoday.com/columnists/israel-insights/elah-valley-discovery-kingdom-david-and-solomon.html


C. The House of Shunamite Woman who assisted Elisha with lodging (2 Kings 4:8-36) and Nimshi, grandfather of King Jehu (1 Kings 19:16; 2 Kings 9:13).

www.biblicalarchaeology.org/.../tel-rehov-house-associated-with-the-biblical-prophet-elisha/


D. The city of Megiddo where king Josiah died in battle against Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt (Joshua 12:21; 1 Kings 9:15; 2 Kings 23:28-30; 1 Chronicles 7:29).

www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/tel-aviv-university-scholars-discuss-jewelry-discovery-at-megiddo/



Additional research sites:

archaeology.about.com/cs/archaeologyatlas/ &

archaeology.about.com/library/atlas/blisrael.htm

pomoerium.com/links/epigraph.htm

faculty.smu.edu/dbinder/archaeol.html

adcommunications.org/WEBPAGE1MASTERpic.htm

www.us-israel.org/jsource/Archaeology/archtoc.html

www.centuryone.org/arch-bible.html

www.us-israel.org/jsource/Archaeology/archtoc.html

www.etana.org/abzu/

www.projesus.com/scripture.html

informationcentre.tripod.com/bibleproof.html Part 1 - &

   informationcentre.tripod.com/bibleproof2.html Part 2 - &

   informationcentre.tripod.com/bibleproof3.html Part 3

www.angelfire.com/nt/theology/01intro.html by John & Paula Stevenson

www.antipas.org/books/bible_today/bt_ch02_p2.html by H.W. Hathaway

www.encyclopedia.com/html/b1/biblical.asp

www.kulikovskyonline.net/hermeneutics/archaeology.htm

www.roca.org/OA/143-144/143m.htm

www.slsoftware.com/study/html_outlines/Accuracy_Of_The_Bible.html

www.souldevice.org/christian_archeology.html

www.hum.huji.ac.il/dinur/links/Archaeology.htm

people.clemson.edu/~sf/books/apology/Chapter5.html

www.heraldmag.org/00ja_6.htm

debate.org.uk/topics/history/rohl-1.htm

www.infidels.org/library/magazines/tsr/2001/2/012dan.html

www.biblemagazine.com/magazine/vol-9/issue-4/evidence.html

208.56.176.8/rchristo/P304.html

www.evidenceforchristianity.org/Libary/Articles/Bible/ARCHAEOLOGICALEVIDENCE.htm

www.souldevice.org/christian_archeology.html

wbc2.wbcoll.edu/rfoster/ntarch.htm

www.bibleinterp.com/articles/excavating_Jesus.htm

www.ubfellowship.org/archive/readers/doc186.htm

www.slsoftware.com/study/text_outlines/Accuracy_Of_The_Bible.txt

www.nccyouth.org/sermontopics/BiblicalArchaeology.html

www.tagnet.org/bibledig/dustfacechart.htm

members.christhost.com/ResourceCentre/history.htm - for the old and new testament

www.saviorquest.com/archaeology.htm

www.wls.wels.net/library/Essays/Authors/K/KorthalsTold/KorthalsTold.pdf

www.adam.com.au/bstett/BArchaeologySupportsNT25.htm

www.hum.huji.ac.il/dinur/links/Archaeology.htm

www.kchanson.com/PTJ/fishing.html

www.sundayschoolcourses.com/histjesu/histcont.htm

whatson.northnet.net.au/users/lostworlds/lwstory15.htm

www.ao.net/~fmoeller/gen10.htm