Levitical Sacrifices

— Mosaic Tabernacle Sacrifices —

Brian Kuehmichel
October 27, 2016



"For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect. For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins. But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year." (Heb 10:1-3)



Table of Contents:
General: Burnt offering;   Meal (grain) offering;   Drink (wine, libation) offering;   Salt offering;   Continual Burnt offering (Daily sacrifice);   Firstfruits offering (Congregational);   Firstfruits offering (Personal);   Sabbath Day offering;   New Moon offering; Sin offering;   Trespass offering;   Peace offering [There are 3 types: Thanksgiving; Vow (Regular or Nazarite); and Freewill (voluntary, a praise offering)];   Wave and Heave offering;   Jealousy offering;   Special Notes



Offering

General: Burnt offering, each with Meal*, Drink and Salt offerings, (Exo 20:24; 29:15-18; Lev 1:3-9, 10-13, 14-17; 6:9-13; 7:8, 37; 10:12-13; 22:17-25; Num 15:1-11; 28:12-14) [ * Meat in KJV, herein presented as Meal offering - a grain offering; See: Who may bring an offering; and Meal (grain) offering]
[Ram: "And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son." (Gen 22:13)
Burnt: Strongs #5930, [to ascend] holocaust (as going up in smoke) - always word "burnt"
Smoke: Strongs #6999, to smoke, i.e. turn into fragrance by fire (especially as an act of worship)
Setting: always upon an altar of earth or uncut stones, "An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee." (Exo 20:24)]

Sacrifice

Male: Bullock, Ram, Goat, Kid, Lamb, Turtledove or Pigeon; fine ground flour for a Meal offering mingled with oil (Lev 3:1, 6)
Female: Cow, Ewe, Goat ("doe" or "nanny"), Kid, Lamb (Lev 3:1, 6; 4:28, 32; 5:6)

Provider

Any Israelite or foreigner (willing to do so according to the terms of the sacrifice)

Executor

Priest on duty and person providing the offering

Manner

It is the burnt offering, because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning*, and the fire of the altar shall be burning* in it. (Lev 6:9) The animal is killed, "And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the Lord: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall sprinkle his blood round about upon the altar." (Lev 1:5, 11; 4:15, 24; 6:25; Exo 29:11); cut in pieces (flay, Lev 1:6) with "the inwards and the legs washed with water"; and placed unto the head upon the altar with all of the fat (Lev 1:6-9); with exception of fowls: "And he shall pluck away his crop with his feathers, and cast it beside the altar on the east part, by the place of the ashes: And he shall cleave it with the wings thereof, but shall not divide it asunder: and the priest shall burn it upon the altar." (Lev 1:16-17) "Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, you shall blow with the trumpets* over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord your God." (Num 10:10) [No dead animals were brought. They must be healthy, without blemish (based upon the type of offering), and meet the age or sex criteria for the type of offering. * See notes on morning and evening; Insights and Supplement: Burning; Continual Burnt offering; Wood and Trumpets]

Blood

The priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood caught in a basin (bason, Exo 12:22; Lev 1:5; Exo 29:12), and sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar, sprinkled on four sides of altar, balance poured at the bottom of the altar. "And you shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with your finger, and pour all the blood beside the bottom of the altar." (Exo 29:12; Lev 1:5; 3:2; 8:15; 9:9; Deut 12:27;) For fowls "the blood thereof shall be wrung out at the side of the altar." (Lev 1:15) "Only you shall not eat the blood; you shall pour it upon the earth as water." (Deut 12:16) [It would make the most sense to pour the blood unto the place of ashes and to pour out the drink offering there to keep the court sanitary.]

Details

"You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of my sacrifice remain until the morning." (Exo 23:18) With the exception of Atonement Day, sin-offerings and the inauguration of priests, the priests kept the hide of sacrificed beasts for his labor. "And the priest that offers any man's burnt offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt offering which he hath offered." (Lev 7:8)

Purpose

It shows God's acceptance of the person's offering (in appreciation, consecration) and their privilege to live in relationship to Him.

Insights

The entire animal is offered to show the degree of approval by God for our offering of our heart and will to Him. This required a significant amount of wood to burn the animal carcasses day and night. It also implies that the priests needed to tend the altar throughout the day and late into the evening–it was their duty as chosen and set apart for the Lord's service. Since it requires much wood and time to burn the sacrifice of God's acceptance it suggests that this lingers on in our hearts. And it also shows the complete and utter destruction of each animal sacrifice.

The requirement to "lay his hand upon the animal's head" means that the person emphasizes that this ceremony applies to himself, that the death of the animal (death by bloodshed and destruction by burning) properly belongs to himself as the penalty for sin. "And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him." (Lev 1:4) This corresponds to the words from God to man in the garden: "And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shalt not eat of it: for in the day that you eat thereof you shalt surely die." (Gen 2:16-17); and "In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, till you return unto the ground; for out of it were you taken: for dust you are, and unto dust shalt you return." (Gen 3:19); and from Apostle Paul, "For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." (Rom 6:23) [Note: 1 Kgs 2:37; Eze 18:10-13; 4, 20]

"And, [Jesus] having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven. And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled In the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and unblameable and unreproveable in his sight: If you continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the gospel, which you have heard, and which was preached to every creature which is under heaven; whereof I Paul am made a minister." (Col 1:20-23); "It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us: Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment: So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation." (Heb 9:23-28)

Supplement

Burning: This full burning unto ashes on the brasen altar, day by day continually, wholly consumed the sacrifice. "It is the burnt offering, because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall be burning in it. ... it shall not be put out." (Lev 6:9, 12) Everything put into the fire upon the brasen altar was consumed to ashes. "And he shall pluck away his crop with his feathers, and cast it beside the altar on the east part, by the place of the ashes." (Lev 1:16) "And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which the fire hath consumed with the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar." (Lev 6:10); "And Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of the congregation, and came out, and blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people. And there came a fire out from before the LORD, and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat: which when all the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces." (Lev 9:23-24) [Note too: Num 11:1-3; Num 16:28-37; 1 Kgs 18:37-39; 1 Chr 21:26; 2 Chr 7:1-3; Isa 66:15-16]

Since "the fire upon the altar shall be burning in it; it shall not be put out" (Lev 6:12), this was the first "everlasting fire" because it was to be continually renewed "throughout your generations" by the morning and evening sacrifices as stated in (Exo 29:38-42). [Except for transport per Numbers 4:13-1 when the hot coals were placed into a censer (Lev 16:12) and were used to return the (ongoing) fire to the brasen altar.] This death and destruction of every sacrifice provides the real meaning from Scripture to Jesus' words in Matthew 25:46 "And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal." and Apostle Paul's words in 2 Thessalonians 1:9 "Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power." Likewise for Isa 33:14; Matt 18:8; 25:41. Note, too, where God himself consumes the offering with fire in Leviticus 9:24, Judg 6:20-21; 1 Kgs 18:36-38 and 1 Chr 21:26. It is God's emphatic statement as to the penalty for sin since the requirement for the offerer to "lay his hand upon the animal's head" means that the person emphasizes that this ceremony applies to himself, that the death of the animal (death by bloodshed and destruction by burning) is his due penalty, the consequence for his own sin. [See: Fire From God; Wood]



Offering

Meal (grain) offering, (Num 15:4); always includes Salt offering, (Lev 2:4-10, 13; 7:9-10; Num 15:1-16) [See: Measures]

Sacrifice

Grain (barley, wheat etc.), the fine ground flour is combined with oil and offered in 4 ways, always unleavened (Exo 23:18; Lev 2:11), except in the sacrifice of thanksgiving of peace offerings (Lev 7:13)

Provider

Priest (expensed from tabernacle offerings); or person providing the offering, (Lev 2:1)

Executor

Priest on duty

Manner

Raw flour and oil with animal offering: This is added to an animal burnt offering, or a sacrifice in performing a vow, or in a freewill offering, or in the solemn feasts. "And every oblation of your meal offering shall you season with salt; neither shall you suffer the salt of the covenant of your God to be lacking from your meal offering: with all your offerings you shall offer salt." (Lev 2:13)

Raw flour and oil with frankincense: "And when any will offer a meal offering unto the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon: And he shall bring it to Aaron's sons the priests: and he shall take out his handful of the flour thereof, and of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof; and the priest shall burn the memorial of it upon the altar, to be an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord: And the remnant of the meal offering shall be Aaron's and his sons': it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the Lord made by fire." (Lev 2:1-3)

Baked in the oven or pan: "And if you bring an oblation of a meal offering baked in the oven, it shall be unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil. And if your oblation be a meal offering baked in a pan, it shall be of fine flour unleavened, mingled with oil. You shall part it in pieces, and pour oil thereon: it is a meal offering." (Lev 2:4-6)

Baked in the frying pan: "And if your oblation be a meal offering baked in the frying pan, it shall be made of fine flour with oil. And you shall bring the meal offering that is made of these things unto the Lord: and when it is presented unto the priest, he shall bring it unto the altar. And the priest shall take from the meal offering a memorial thereof, and shall burn it upon the altar: it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. And that which is left of the meal offering shall be Aaron's and his sons': it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the Lord made by fire." (Lev 2:7-10)

Blood

(None)

Details

Bullock - a meal offering of 3 of 1/10 deals* of flour mingled with 1/2 hin* of oil, (Num 15:9)
Ram - a meal offering of 2 of 1/10 deals of flour mingled with 1/3 hin of oil, (Num 15:6)
Lamb - a meal offering of 1/10 deal of flour mingled with 1/4 hin of oil, (Num 15:4) "The fourth part of an hin of wine for a drink offering shall you prepare with the burnt offering or sacrifice, for one lamb." (Num 15:5)

"And Moses spake unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons that were left, Take the meal offering that remains of the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and eat it without leaven beside the altar: for it is most holy: And you shall eat it in the holy place, because it is your due, and your sons' due, of the sacrifices of the Lord made by fire: for so I am commanded." (Lev 10:12-13)

"And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When you be come into the land of your habitations, which I give unto you, And will make an offering by fire unto the Lord, a burnt offering, or a sacrifice in performing a vow, or in a freewill offering, or in your solemn feasts, to make a sweet savor unto the Lord, of the herd or of the flock: Then shall he that offers his offering unto the Lord bring a meal offering of a tenth deal of flour mingled with the fourth part of an hin of oil. And the fourth part of an hin of wine for a drink offering shall you prepare with the burnt offering or sacrifice, for one lamb. Or for a ram, you shall prepare for a meal offering two tenth deals of flour mingled with the third part of an hin of oil. And for a drink offering you shall offer the third part of an hin of wine, for a sweet savor unto the Lord. And when you prepare a bullock for a burnt offering, or for a sacrifice in performing a vow, or peace offerings unto the Lord: Then shall he bring with a bullock a meal offering of three tenth deals of flour mingled with half an hin of oil. And you shall bring for a drink offering half an hin of wine, for an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. Thus shall it be done for one bullock, or for one ram, or for a lamb, or a kid." (Num 15:1-11) "Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall you have: I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt." (Lev 19:36) [See: *Measures]

Purpose

An offering of gratitude and appreciation expressed for innumerable general blessings or a specific blessing. It shows appreciation of Christ's qualities.

Insights

Fine ground grain flour suggests a pureness and even quality of perfection as demonstrated by Christ. He is the first fruit of the grain, and the best of the crop. The oil mixed with the grain points to the inseparable qualities and unction of the Holy Spirit. The frankincense, praise of the heart, points to the aroma of His sacrificial life, even as given to his parents for him by the wise men from the east. With the Meal offering the flour heaped up represents his body, the oil poured into it is the infusion of the Holy Spirit and the frankincense placed on top is the aroma of his life given for us so that we might have life more abundantly.

The Meal (grain) offerings included unleavened bread with oil poured upon it and this suggests that the holy spirit of God is upon Christ Jesus, and His church. For the church, the oil added to the offering suggests the Spirit's work of sanctification in the heart of the believer who is counted "righteous" through the blood of Jesus. "Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God." (Rom 5:1-2); "And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness." (Rom 8:10); "And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." (1 Cor 6:11) The wafer (a thin bread or cake) anointed with oil, when held up to the light, has a transparency and suggests the transformation of the new creature by the spirit into the image of Christ. "And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God." (Rom 12:2); "That he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man; That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love, May be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height; And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God." (Eph 3:16-19); "Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust." (2 Pet 1:4)

Supplement



Offering

Drink (wine, libation) offering, (Lev 23:13; Num 15:5; 28:7 Cp. Exo 30:1-10) [See: Measures]

Sacrifice

Fruit of grape vine processed by fermentation to make wine

Provider

Priest (expensed from tabernacle offerings); or person providing the offering, (Lev 2:1)

Executor

Priest on duty

Manner

It is poured out in the court, "in the holy place* shall you cause the strong wine to be poured unto the Lord for a drink offering." (Num 28:7)

Blood

(None)

Details

Bullock - a drink offering of 1/2 hin of wine, (Num 15:10)
Ram - a drink offering of 1/3 hin of wine, (Num 15:7)
Lamb - a drink offering of 1/4 hin of wine, (Num 15:5) "And the drink offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an hin for the one lamb: in the holy place shalt you cause the strong wine to be poured unto the Lord for a drink offering." (Num 28:7) [ * "The holy place" often described the first room of the Tabernacle: Exo 26:33; 28:29, 35, 43; 29:30; 31:11; 38:24; Lev 16:2-3. "The holy place" also described the Court: Ex 29:31; Lev 6:16, 26-27, 30; 7:6; 10:13, 17-18; 14:13. The drink offering was poured out in the court based upon other verses (Lev 6:16, 26) where the blood was poured out (Lev 8:15; 9:9; Deut 12:27). It would make the most sense to pour out the drink offering unto the place of ashes to keep the court sanitary. See: Levitical Installation Sacrifices]

"And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When you be come into the land of your habitations, which I give unto you, And will make an offering by fire unto the Lord, a burnt offering, or a sacrifice in performing a vow, or in a freewill offering, or in your solemn feasts, to make a sweet savor unto the Lord, of the herd or of the flock: Then shall he that offers his offering unto the Lord bring a meal offering of a tenth deal of flour mingled with the fourth part of an hin of oil. And the fourth part of an hin of wine for a drink offering shall you prepare with the burnt offering or sacrifice, for one lamb. Or for a ram, you shall prepare for a meal offering two tenth deals of flour mingled with the third part of an hin of oil. And for a drink offering you shall offer the third part of an hin of wine, for a sweet savor unto the Lord. And when you prepare a bullock for a burnt offering, or for a sacrifice in performing a vow, or peace offerings unto the Lord: Then shall he bring with a bullock a meal offering of three tenth deals of flour mingled with half an hin of oil. And you shall bring for a drink offering half an hin of wine, for an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. Thus shall it be done for one bullock, or for one ram, or for a lamb, or a kid." (Num 15:1-11)

Purpose

The drink offering added to the burnt offerings points to the spirit of the offering: "Search the scriptures; for in them you think you have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me." (John 5:39); "And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself." (Luke 24:27)

Insights

This addition to burnt offerings points to the very spirit of the offerings, that their purpose is to point us toward the perfections and provisions we receive in Christ. The wine is another picture of the infusion of the Holy Spirit as Apostle Paul asserts in Ephesians 5:18. "And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit." Wine as used in cooking brings a sweet flavor and, for we who believe, Christ's work on behalf of all mankind is very sweet indeed.

Supplement

(None)



Offering

Salt offering, (Lev 2:13) [Note: This offering is never given alone but only combined with others.]

Sacrifice

Salt (either mined or dehydrated from the Dead or Mediterranean Sea)

Provider

Priest (expensed from tabernacle offerings); or person providing the offering

Executor

Priest on duty, or put into Meal offering by person providing the offering

Manner

"And every oblation of your meal offering shall you season with salt; neither shall you suffer the salt of the covenant of your God to be lacking from your meal offering: with all your offerings you shall offer salt." (Lev 2:13)

Blood

(None)

Details

The priest takes up an amount in his hand and sprinkles it upon the offering comparative to the size of the offering, or it is put into the Meal offering by the person providing the offering.

Purpose

"And every oblation of your meal offering shall you season with salt; neither shall you suffer the salt of the covenant of your God to be lacking from your meal offering: with all your offerings you shall offer salt." (Lev 2:13) "All the heave offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the Lord, have I given thee, and your sons and your daughters with thee, by a statute for ever: it is a covenant of salt for ever before the Lord unto you and to your seed with thee." (Num 18:19); [Note: "When you hast made an end of cleansing it, you shall offer a young bullock without blemish, and a ram out of the flock without blemish. And you shall offer them before the Lord, and the priests shall cast salt upon them, and they shall offer them up for a burnt offering unto the Lord." (Eze 43:23-22) "Ought you not to know that the Lord God of Israel gave the kingdom over Israel to David for ever, even to him and to his sons by a covenant of salt?" (2 Chr 13:5)]

Insights

Salt is used to provide flavor and supply nutritional need in our diet. It also preserves foods, heals wounds, and suggests value since it was used for money. It implies common grace and general good-will since it has such ubiquitous use. Everything we do should be seasoned with at least this, if not more, grace, love, forgiveness, compassion and mercy. "Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his saltiness, wherewith will you season it? Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one with another." (Mark 9:50); "Let your speech be always with grace, seasoned with salt, that you may know how you ought to answer every man." (Col 4:6) Christ Jesus displayed "salt" in His agreeable nature so that crowds thronged Him, good-will by miracles of healing, cheerful and willing desire to fulfill the requirements of the Mosaic Law and even in His dialogue with the pharisees and scribes so as to get them to turn from their wrong way unto the real lawkeeper and lifegiver.

Supplement



Offering

Continual Burnt offering (Daily sacrifice), Lamb burnt offering, (Num 28:1-8)

Sacrifice

1 unblemished Lamb with Meal, Drink and Salt offerings (Exo 29:39-41)

Provider

Priests (expensed from tabernacle offerings)

Executor

Priest on duty [probably chosen by lot, Luke 1:5-9]

Manner

One lamb sacrificed each morning* and evening* with their Meal offering of 1/10th ephah of flour mingled with 1/4 hin of beaten oil, Drink offering of 1/4 hin of wine, and Salt offering

Blood

Sprinkled on four sides of altar, balance poured at the bottom of the altar, (Lev 3:2; 8:15; 9:9; Deut 12:27; 2 Kgs 16:13 Cp. 2 Chr 29:22)

Details

"Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar; two lambs of the first year day by day continually." (Exo 29:38); "And thou shalt say unto them, This is the offering made by fire which ye shall offer unto the Lord; two lambs of the first year without spot day by day, for a continual burnt offering." (Num 28:3); "And you shall say unto them, This is the offering made by fire which you shall offer unto the Lord; two lambs of the first year without spot day by day, for a continual burnt offering. The one lamb shall you offer in the morning, and the other lamb shall you offer at even; And a tenth part of an ephah of flour for a meal offering, mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil." (Num 28:3-5)

Purpose

This is a constant reminder of our need for Christ who brought salvation to us through His "once for all" sacrifice for sin. Heb 10:10

Insights

"The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. ... And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God!" (John 1:29, 36); "By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. And every priest standeth daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins: But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God." (Heb. 10:10-12); "By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament. And they truly were many priests, because they were not suffered to continue by reason of death ... For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: for this he did once, when he offered up himself. For the law maketh men high priests which have infirmity; but the word of the oath, which was since the law, maketh the Son, who is consecrated for evermore." (Heb. 7:22-28) This causes us to realize the ever efficacious blood sacrifice of Christ Jesus and our constant need for Him to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. (1 Jn 1:9) We are not able to do anything of our own power for by the deeds of the law shall no man be justified, hence we will only be effective by walking, thinking and doing according to His word guided through the Holy Spirit, for "in Him we live and move and have our being."

"Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many." (Matt 20:28); "For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many." (Mark 10:45); "For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end." (Luke 22:37); "Then said Jesus unto them, Yet a little while am I with you, and then I go unto him that sent me. Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither ye cannot come." (John 7:33-34); "By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all." (Heb 10:10); "Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time." (1 Tim 2:6); "The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus; whom ye delivered up, and denied him in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let him go. But ye denied the Holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer to be granted unto you; And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses." (Acts 3:13-15); "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree." (Acts 5:30)

Supplement

See: "Why was Jesus born in a manger?"

* The times of the morning and evening sacrifices are these: morning is between the dawning light and sunrise (when top of sun shows) and evening is between the sunset (when top of sun disappears) during twilight before darkness. See: "CORRECT TIMING OF THE MORNING & EVENING SACRIFICES." This provides adequate time each day to process the numerous required and voluntary sacrifices and is consistent with: "I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work." (John 9:4)]



Offering

Congregational: Firstfruits offering, (Lev 23:9-14)

Sacrifice

And you shall offer that day when you wave the sheaf a male lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the Lord. And the meal offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the Lord for a sweet savor: and the drink offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of an hin. [plus Salt offering]

Provider

Father or head of household of first ripe barley grain for the year (usually from Israel's southern territories).

Executor

Priest on duty

Manner

He shall wave the sheaf before the Lord for you: on the day after the sabbath the priest shall wave it., vs 11

Blood

Sprinkled on four sides of altar, balance poured at the bottom of the altar, (Lev 3:2; 8:15; 9:9; Deut 12:27; 2 Kgs 16:13 Cp. 2 Chr 29:22)

Details

The animal sacrifice required double the amount of flour (two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil) since this was a new harvest and this allowed for generosity of the grain flour and oil. "And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When you be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then you shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest: And he shall wave the sheaf before the Lord, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it. And you shall offer that day when you wave the sheaf an he lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the Lord. And the meal offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the Lord for a sweet savor: and the drink offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of an hin. And you shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day that you have brought an offering unto your God: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings." (Lev 23:10-14)

Purpose

God wants His people to possess gratitude toward Him for provision of necessary food and abundance for various feasts, Tabernacle and free-will offerings, care for needy, and for economic trade. The early harvest also implies gratitude for the early and latter rain and protection from invaders, whether plant diseases of pestilence, blasting, and mildew; animal swarms of locusts, cankerworm, caterpillar, and palmer worm; or military raiders taking their crops.

Insights

Generally, annual harvesting proceeded from the Feast of Firstfruits unto the Feast of Booths. "Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the fruit of the land, you shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath. And you shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven days. And you shall keep it a feast unto the Lord seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: you shall celebrate it in the seventh month. You shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths:" (Lev 23:39-42) The offering for the day of Pentecost has two wave loaves of leavened bread. (Lev 23:16-18)

Supplement

(None)



Offering

Personal: Firstfruits offering, (Lev 2:12-15)

Provider

Father or head of household offers first ripe barley grain, which is the first grain to ripen for the year, an offering to God at the Tabernacle (using the Jewish calendar to start and proceed through each year). "And if thou offer a meat [meal] offering of thy firstfruits unto the Lord, thou shalt offer for the meat offering of thy firstfruits green ears of corn dried by the fire, even corn beaten out of full ears. And thou shalt put oil upon it, and lay frankincense thereon: it is a meat offering. And the priest shall burn the memorial of it, part of the beaten corn thereof, and part of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof: it is an offering made by fire unto the Lord." (Lev 2:14-16) And the firstborn of livestock. "But the firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, you shalt not redeem; they are holy: you shalt sprinkle their blood upon the altar, and shalt burn their fat for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the Lord." (Num 18:17) [See: Levitical Sacrifices: Burnt Offering]

Executor

Priest on duty

Manner

For grain (corn): "As for the oblation of the firstfruits, you shall offer them unto the Lord: but they shall not be burnt on the altar for a sweet savor. And every oblation of your meal offering shall you season with salt; neither shall you suffer the salt of the covenant of your God to be lacking from your meal offering: with all your offerings you shall offer salt. And if you offer a meal offering of your firstfruits unto the Lord, you shall offer for the meal offering of your firstfruits green ears of corn dried by the fire, even corn beaten out of full ears. And you shall put oil upon it, and lay frankincense thereon: it is a meal offering." (Lev 2:12-15) For livestock (Lev 27:26): "But the firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, you shalt not redeem; they are holy: you shalt sprinkle their blood upon the altar, and shalt burn their fat for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the Lord. And the flesh of them shall be yours [the priests], as the wave breast and as the right shoulder are thine. All the heave offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the Lord, have I given thee, and your sons and your daughters with thee, by a statute for ever: it is a covenant of salt for ever before the Lord unto thee and to your seed with thee." (Num 18:17-19) For Wine, Oil, Fleece: "And this shall be the priest's due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep; and they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw. The firstfruit also of your corn, of your wine, and of your oil, and the first of the fleece of your sheep, shalt you give him. For the Lord your God hath chosen him out of all our tribes, to stand to minister in the name of the Lord, him and his sons for ever." (Deut 18:3-5) All other tithes: [See: Tithes]

Blood

(None)

Details

And the priest shall burn the memorial of it, part of the beaten corn thereof, and part of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof: it is an offering made by fire unto the Lord." (Lev 2:16)

Purpose

"That thou shalt take of the first of all the fruit of the earth, which thou shalt bring of thy land that the Lord thy God giveth thee, and shalt put it in a basket, and shalt go unto the place which the Lord thy God shall choose to place his name there." (Deut 26:2) Every household is required to bring their firstfruits of plants (yearly, Deut 26:2) and livestock (firstborn, Exo 13:12; 34:19; Num 18:15) to God to show appreciation for His blessing and provision. It shows gratitude toward God for provision of necessary things, especially for food and abundance for various feasts, Tabernacle and free-will offerings, care for needy, and for economic trade.

Insights

How much more should we be grateful for daily bread, forgiveness from sins, certainty of the sacrifice of Jesus to pay for our sins, the restored fellowship with God, privilege of prayer requests and divine leadership in our lives.

Supplement

The Levites also bring a special tithe offering. "But the tithes of the children of Israel, which they offer as an heave offering unto the Lord, I have given to the Levites to inherit: therefore I have said unto them, Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Thus speak unto the Levites, and say unto them, When ye take of the children of Israel the tithes which I have given you from them for your inheritance, then ye shall offer up an heave offering of it for the Lord, even a tenth part of the tithe. And this your heave offering shall be reckoned unto you, as though it were the corn of the threshingfloor, and as the fulness of the winepress. Thus ye also shall offer an heave offering unto the Lord of all your tithes, which ye receive of the children of Israel; and ye shall give thereof the Lord'S heave offering to Aaron the priest. Out of all your gifts ye shall offer every heave offering of the Lord, of all the best thereof, even the hallowed part thereof out of it. Therefore thou shalt say unto them, When ye have heaved the best thereof from it, then it shall be counted unto the Levites as the increase of the threshingfloor, and as the increase of the winepress. And ye shall eat it in every place, ye and your households: for it is your reward for your service in the tabernacle of the congregation. And ye shall bear no sin by reason of it, when ye have heaved from it the best of it: neither shall ye pollute the holy things of the children of Israel, lest ye die." (Num 18:24-32)



Offering

Sabbath Day burnt offering, (Num 28:9-10)

Sacrifice

2 unblemished Lambs of the 1st year each with Meal, Drink and Salt offerings

Provider

Priests (expensed from tabernacle offerings)

Executor

Priest on duty, ?High Priest

Manner

Added to the morning Continual Burnt offering (Daily sacrifice) for a total of 3 lamb sacrifices, (Num 28:10)

Blood

"And you shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with your finger, and pour all the blood beside the bottom of the altar." (Exo 29:12; Lev 1:5; 3:2; 8:15; 9:9; Deut 12:27; Cp. 2 Kgs 16:13; 2 Chr 29:22)

Details

[See individual offerings: Lamb; Meal; Drink; and Salt]

Purpose

Teach and remind us to rest our faith in Christ.

Insights

Two lambs may suggest we need Christ not only for our release from sin and death but also for our ongoing sins and weaknesses that we might have rest now and in the ages to come. It also shows the continuous efficacy of Christ's sacrifice for our sins. And on this day of rest we are to also rest in Christ's finished work on our behalf no longer trusting in any "good works" to provide for our own standing before God.

Supplement

In the Jewish calendar year of 360 days there were 51 regular Sabbath days, 12 monthly New Moon feasts, 3 special feasts with extra Sabbaths where all males 20 years or greater were to come before the Lord: Feast of Unleavened Bread (and Passover), Feast of Weeks (Pentecost), and the Feast of Tabernacles (Booths), (2 Chr 8:13).



Offering

New Moon burnt offering, (Num 10:10; 28:11-15; 2 Chr 2:4)

Sacrifice

2 unblemished young bullocks, 1 ram, 7 lambs of the 1st year each with their Meal, Drink and Salt offerings and Sin offering of a kid goat (with its supplemental offerings) in addition to the Continual Burnt offering (Daily sacrifice) and its drink offering.

Provider

Priests (expensed from tabernacle offerings)

Executor

Priest on duty, ?High Priest

Manner

Bullock burnt offering, (Num 28:12, 14) with 3 of 1/10 deals of flour for a meal offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and the drink offering shall be 1/2 hin of wine unto a bullock.
Ram burnt offering, (Num 28:12, 14) with 2 of 1/10 deals of flour for a Meal offering, mingled with oil, for one ram; and the drink offering 1/3 hin unto a ram;
Lamb burnt offering, (Num 28:13-14) with 1/10 deal of fine flour; and the drink offering 1/4 hin unto a lamb;

Sin burnt offering, (Num 28:15) and one kid of the goats, in addition to the continual burnt offering and its drink offering. "Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, you shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord your God." (Num 10:10)

Blood

Sprinkled on four sides of altar, balance poured at the bottom of the altar, (Lev 3:2; 8:15; 9:9; Deut 12:27; 2 Kgs 16:13 Cp. 2 Chr 29:22)

Details

The additional sacrifices, added to the Continual Burnt offering (Daily sacrifice), suggest a call to the people to keep or renew in their heart the Law Covenant. "Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day." Psa 81:3 The blowing of the Silver Trumpets is reminiscent of the loud trumpet blasts at Mt Sinai where Moses went up to receive God's covenant and commands. It is called a "solemn feast day" which implies its importance in connecting the people to the true worship of God.

Purpose

It is a reminder to keep, or call to renew, Israelites to the Law Covenant which in turn pointed them and us to Christ.

Insights

Jesus is the only basis of reconciliation with God to which all of the Levitical ceremonies and sacrifices point. This monthly ceremony shows us it is necessary that we must constantly maintain and renew our trust, appreciation and love for God and in His provision for dealing with our sins.

Supplement

(None)



Offering

Sin offering of herd or flock, (Lev 6:25-30; 4:1-12, 13-21, 22-26, 35; 8:14-17; 9:21; 16:1-14)

Sacrifice

Bullock, burnt sin offering, a male without blemish,

Goat, burnt sin offering, kid of the goats, a male without blemish,

Goat, burnt sin offering, kid of the goats, a female without blemish,

Lamb, burnt sin offering, female without blemish

Provider

Person, priest, ruler, whole congregation

Executor

High Priest, the priest that is anointed, (Lev 4:5)

Manner

"This is the law of the sin offering: "In the place where the burnt offering is killed shall the sin offering be killed before the Lord: it is most holy." (Lev 6:25) [See: Tending the Brasen Altar]

Blood

Bullock - sin of priest, "take of the bullock's blood, and bring it into the tabernacle of the congregation: And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the Lord, before the veil of the sanctuary. And the priest shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the Lord, which is in the tabernacle of the congregation; and shall pour all the blood of the bullock at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation." (Lev 4:5-7); "... all the fat that is upon the inwards, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver [large lobe of liver], with the kidneys ... and the priest shall burn them upon the altar of the burnt offering." (Lev 4: 8-10); "And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the mercy seat eastward; and before the mercy seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times." (Lev 16:14) [This makes two directions and forms the cross shape.]

Bullock - whole congregation of Israel sins, "shall bring of the bullock's blood to the tabernacle of the congregation: And the priest shall dip his finger in some of the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the Lord, even before the vail. And he shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the Lord, that is in the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall pour out all the blood at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation." (Lev 4:16-18)

Goat, male kid - for ruler's sin; female kid - for common people, "the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out his blood at the bottom of the altar of burnt offering." (Lev 4:25, 30); Lamb, burnt sin offering, (Lev 4:32)

Details

Priest - "Lay his hand upon the bullock's head, and kill the bullock before the Lord." (Lev 4:4) Congregation - "the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the Lord: and the bullock shall be killed before the Lord." (Lev 4:15) [See: Insights]

Bullock – parts burnt on altar, "And he shall take off from it all the fat of the bullock for the sin offering; the fat that covers the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away, As it was taken off from the bullock of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall burn them upon the altar of the burnt offering." (Lev 4:8-10)

Bullock – parts burnt outside camp, "And the skin of the bullock, and all his flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and his inwards, and his dung, Even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn him on the wood with fire: where the ashes are poured out shall he be burnt." (Lev 4:11-12) And no sin offering, whereof any of the blood is brought into the tabernacle of the congregation to reconcile withal in the holy place, shall be eaten: it shall be burnt in the fire.

Lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt offering before the Lord - Goat fat burnt upon altar, (Lev 4:24, 29.) The balance of the carcass is not taken outside the camp where the sin-offering carcass is burnt (Lev 4:12, 21) but is for the priests to eat. (Lev 6:26-29)

Purpose

It is to show the recognition of guilt in a person or the congregation for any sin. (Num 15:22-29) For sins by priest or congregation the blood is sprinkled 7 times before the inner veil of the tabernacle and upon the horns of the golden altar. If a ruler or common person sins then the blood is applied to just the horns of the brasen altar. The balance of the blood is poured out at the brasen altar implying the whole affair of sin causes death and destruction.

Insights

The necessary steps according to Jesus was to reconcile with whoever you have offended which would include repentance, apology and making amends (restitution to wholeness again, as far as possible). Bringing the sacrifice from your own possession meant that it was near, dear and costly. The early recognition of sin, the process of restoring relationship, the selection of the best unblemished animal as well as the time lost from the journey to and from the Tabernacle all would drive home to the sinner the great cost of sin. The presentation of a sin offering at the Tabernacle would bring shame. It was a public acknowledgment of both sin and repentance. This shows a desire to depart from past ways in repentance and to start anew in appreciation for Christ and a consecration to serve Him. The requirement to "lay his hand upon the bullock's head" means that the person emphasizes that this ceremony applies to himself, that the death of the animal properly belongs to himself as the penalty for sin. We most often know better but we sin anyway. So Jesus becomes more precious as He removes both sin and its guilt from our hearts, "cleansing us from all unrighteousness." Thus we return again freed from sin's bondage, consecrated in heart, and more willing to serve Him with our whole heart, mind and strength.

The (Lev 16:14) sprinkling of the blood in two directions before [but not upon] the Ark of the Covenant in the Most Holy place points to the coming sacrifice of Christ Jesus upon a Roman cross bearing the sins of all mankind. The removal of the parts not placed upon the altar to outside the camp (Lev 4:11-12, above) point to the separation of the sinner from the fellowship of God's people. In the case of Christ Jesus it points to his being treated as if he had sinned when he voluntarily became a sin-offering for us. "For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate." (Heb 13:11-12); "Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds." (Heb 12:2-3) Thus Jesus fulfilled Isaiah 53:10, "Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand."

Supplement

[See: Num 15:22-29; Matt 25:31-46 and the seven churches in the Revelation to Apostle John.]



Offering

Trespass offering, a form of Sin offering, (Lev 5:1-13; 6:1-7; 7:1-7 [for uncleanness: a simpler form, Lev 5:6-7, 11; for intentional sin of taking possession(s): a more complex form, Lev 6:1-7] "And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to do a trespass against the Lord, and that person be guilty; Then they shall confess their sin which they have done: and he shall recompense his trespass with the principal thereof, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him against whom he hath trespassed. But if the man have no kinsman to recompense the trespass unto, let the trespass be recompensed unto the Lord, even to the priest; beside the ram of the atonement, whereby an atonement shall be made for him." (Num 15:5-8)

Sacrifice

For uncleanness: Female lamb or female kid of the goats, or if poor: two turtle doves, or two young pigeons, "And if he be not able to bring a lamb, then he shall bring for his trespass, which he hath committed, two turtle doves, or two young pigeons, unto the Lord; one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering." (Lev 5:6-7); and if very poor: the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering, (Lev 5:11)

For intentional sin: Restoration (restitution) of possession(s) along with a 20% value penalty added to it given to rightful owner, plus a ram (male goat or sheep over 1 year old) without blemish out of the flock, (Lev 6:1-7)

Provider

Any Israelite

Executor

Priest on duty

Manner

A female lamb or kid is treated as a Sin offering, but two birds require a more complex process: the priest shall offer that which is for the sin offering first, and he shall offer the second for a burnt offering with a Meal, Drink and Salt offering. (Lev 5:8-10) The poorest bring the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour and the priest shall take his handful of it, even a memorial thereof, and burn it on the altar. (Lev 5:11-13)

Blood

Sprinkled on four sides of altar, balance poured at the bottom of the altar, (Lev 1:5; 3:2; 7:2; 8:15; 9:9; Deut 12:27) "the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out his blood at the bottom of the altar of burnt offering." (Lev 4:25, 30)

Details

These may be a female lamb or female kid of the goats, or if poor: two turtle doves, or two young pigeons, fowl or meal offering based upon the offending party's ability to provide an offering. The Trespass offering is processed accordingly. "Likewise this is the law of the trespass offering: it is most holy. In the place where they kill the burnt offering shall they kill the trespass offering: and the blood thereof shall he sprinkle round about upon the altar. And he shall offer of it all the fat thereof; the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks, and the caul that is above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away: And the priest shall burn them upon the altar for an offering made by fire unto the Lord: it is a trespass offering. Every male among the priests shall eat thereof: it shall be eaten in the holy place: it is most holy. As the sin offering is, so is the trespass offering: there is one law for them: the priest that maketh atonement therewith shall have it." (Lev 7:1-7) The two bird Trespass offering requires this process: "And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin offering first, and wring off his head from his neck, but shall not divide it asunder: And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at the bottom of the altar: it is a sin offering. And he shall offer the second for a burnt offering, according to the manner: and the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin which he hath sinned, and it shall be forgiven him." (Lev 5:8-10) "But if he be not able to bring* two turtle doves, or two young pigeons, then he that sinned shall bring for his offering the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon: for it is a sin offering. Then shall he bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it, even a memorial thereof, and burn it on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the Lord: it is a sin offering. And the priest shall make an atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in one of these, and it shall be forgiven him: and the remnant shall be the priest's, as a meal offering." (Lev 5:11-13) [ * Since the Old Testament Israelite was promised tangible blessings and prosperity for obedience to God, the person bringing the larger animal suggests actively seeking spiritual growth or possessing maturity and the person bringing the meager sizes suggests spiritual depravity, weakness or needed growth.]

Purpose

This is an admission of their uncleanness or sin of taking possession(s). It is to resolve lesser sins of touching an unclean thing, or unclean carcass, or uncleanness of man (diseases, bloody issues, etc.), or swearing to do evil unadvisedly, or promising to do good but not fulfilling it, or to conclude reconciliation for intentional sin (after restitution and adding 1/5 more to it, Lev 5:16; 6:5; Num 5:7) of taking another's possession(s).

Insights

"And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and is a witness, whether he hath seen or known of it; if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity. Or if a soul touch any unclean thing, whether it be a carcase of an unclean beast, or a carcase of unclean cattle, or the carcase of unclean creeping things, and if it be hidden from him; he also shall be unclean, and guilty. Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever uncleanness it be that a man shall be defiled withal, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty. Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty in one of these. And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that he hath sinned in that thing. And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the Lord for his sin which he hath sinned, ..." (Lev 5:1-6a) It was hard for an Israelite to keep ritually "clean" since everyday affairs brought a person into contact with "unclean" things of sickness, weeping wounds, issue of blood, death, et cetera, while housecleaning may bring into contact some dead lizard or rodent, or unclean animal. This shows to us the incredible pervasiveness of sin and the ongoing need to deal with our propensities and proclivities to transgress. This is why Apostle John affirms, "My little children, these things write I unto you, that you sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments." (1 John 2:1-3) Apostle Paul also speaks of his own struggle saying, "For that which I do I allow not: for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I." (Rom 7:15) And Paul asks us to remember, "For you were sometimes darkness, but now are you light in the Lord: walk as children of light." (Eph 5:8) "Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. For he that eats and drinks unworthily, eats and drinks damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body." (1 Cor 11:27-29)

Supplement

This suggests to the Christian believer that each must be very intentional to do good, to hear God's word with the ear, to pursue Godly paths with their feet, to labor honestly with the hands, to serve with the heart for righteousness that they might bear the image of Him who created them. "But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust." (Matt 5:44-45); "As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith." (Gal 6:10); "But to do good and to communicate forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased." (Heb 13:16); "But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it." (Luke 11:28); "He that is of God heareth God's words: ye therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God." (John 8:47); "But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves." (James 1:22); "That ye might walk worthy of the Lord unto all pleasing, being fruitful in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God." (Col 1:10); "That ye would walk worthy of God, who hath called you unto his kingdom and glory." (1 Thes 2:12); "Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth." (Eph 4:28); "Forasmuch as ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart." (2 Cor 3:3); "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." (Gen 1:27); "And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him." (Col 3:10) [For an application of the insidiousness of sin in the Pharisees see: The Pharisees Ask Jesus A Question]



Offering

Peace offering, (Lev 3:1; 6:9-13; Lev 7:11-15 with Num 15:1-16; Lev 7:29-38; 17:1-7; 3:1-17; 19:5-8) There are 3 types: Thanksgiving, (Lev 7:13-15); Vow: Regular or Nazarite, (Num 6:1-21); and Freewill (voluntary, (Lev 7:16); a praise offering)

Sacrifice

Herd, goats, sheep: These may be young or old but must be without listed blemishs. (Lev 3:1-9) These sacrifices include the Meal, Drink and Salt offerings. (Exo 29:39-41)

Provider

Person making offering; To bring a Peace or Vow offering before the Lord a youth and female needed their father's permission (Num 30:4-5) and a wife needed her husband's permission. (Num 30:7-14)

Executor

Priest on duty and the person offering

Manner

The person offering this sacrifice must slay it and bring the portions required to the priest to offer it. (Lev 7:29-34) "His own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord made by fire, the fat with the breast, it shall he bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lord." (Lev 7:30) The animal is killed at the door of the Tabernacle, not beside the altar. (Lev 17:1-7) "And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which he shall offer unto the Lord. If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour, fried. Besides the cakes, he shall offer for his offering leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings. And of it he shall offer one out of the whole oblation for an heave offering unto the Lord, and it shall be the priest's that sprinkles the blood of the peace offerings. And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day that it is offered; he shall not leave any of it until the morning." (Lev 7:11-15 "Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, you shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord your God." (Num 10:10)

"And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, He that offers the sacrifice of his peace offerings unto the Lord shall bring his oblation unto the Lord of the sacrifice of his peace offerings. His own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord made by fire, the fat with the breast, it shall he bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lord. And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar: but the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons'. And the right shoulder shall you give unto the priest for an heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings. He among the sons of Aaron, that offers the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for his part. For the wave breast and the heave shoulder have I taken of the children of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons by a statute for ever from among the children of Israel." (Lev 7:28-34) "And you shalt sanctify the breast of the wave offering, and the shoulder of the heave offering, which is waved, and which is heaved up, of the ram of the consecration, even of that which is for Aaron, and of that which is for his sons: And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute for ever from the children of Israel: for it is an heave offering: and it shall be an heave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offerings, even their heave offering unto the Lord." (Exo 29:27-28) "And Moses spake unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons that were left, Take the meal offering that remains of the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and eat it without leaven beside the altar: for it is most holy: And you shall eat it in the holy place, because it is your due, and your sons' due, of the sacrifices of the Lord made by fire: for so I am commanded. And the wave breast and heave shoulder shall you eat in a clean place; thou, and your sons, and your daughters with thee: for they be your due, and your sons' due, which are given out of the sacrifices of peace offerings of the children of Israel. The heave shoulder and the wave breast shall they bring with the offerings made by fire of the fat, to wave it for a wave offering before the Lord; and it shall be thine, and your sons' with thee, by a statute for ever; as the Lord hath commanded." (Lev 10:12-15)

"And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace offering, if he offer it of the herd; whether it be a male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the Lord. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron's sons the priests shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about. And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace offering an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat that cover the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. And Aaron's sons shall burn it on the altar upon the burnt sacrifice, which is upon the wood that is on the fire: it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord." (Lev 3:1-5)

Nazarite vow completed: "one lamb of the first year without blemish for a burnt offering, and one ewe lamb of the first year without blemish for a sin offering, and one ram without blemish for peace offerings, And a basket of unleavened bread, cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, and wafers of unleavened bread anointed with oil, and their meal offering, and their drink offerings. ... and he shall offer the ram for a sacrifice of peace offerings unto the Lord, with the basket of unleavened bread: the priest shall offer also his meal offering, and his drink offering." (Num 6:1-21)

Blood

Sprinkled on four sides of altar, balance poured at the bottom of the altar, (Lev 1:5; 3:2; 8:15; 9:9; Deut 12:27)

Details

This sacrifice emphasizes direct involvement. The person making this offering must face and participate in the death of the animal offered. The person must cut the animal carcass into the required portions and carry them and the Meal, Drink and Salt offerings together to the priest. This is no small thing to do. Leviticus 7:11-15 gives specific details for 3 types of Meal offerings, the priest's portion (Lev 6:31-33), the duties of the person making the offering, and what to do with the uneaten portion. The amount required for the Meal offering and the Drink offering, based upon the animal, is proscribed in Numbers 15:1-16. "And you shall offer peace offerings, and shall eat there, and rejoice before the Lord your God." (Deut 27:7)

"And whosoever offers a sacrifice of peace offerings unto the Lord to accomplish his vow, or a freewill offering in beeves or sheep, it shall be perfect to be accepted; there shall be no blemish therein. Blind, or broken, or maimed, or having a wen, or scurvy, or scabbed, you shall not offer these unto the Lord, nor make an offering by fire of them upon the altar unto the Lord." (Lev 22:21-22); "And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace offering, if he offer it of the herd; whether it be a male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the Lord." (Lev 3:1)

The Thanksgiving offering is the only sacrifice that allows leavened bread, (Lev 7:13), and the Freewill offering is the only sacrifice that allows a blemished animal, (Lev 22:23).

"And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day that it is offered; he shall not leave any of it until the morning. But if the sacrifice of his [peace] offering be a vow, or a voluntary [freewill] offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offers his sacrifice: and on the morrow also the remainder of it shall be eaten: But the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burnt with fire. And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offers it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eats of it shall bear his iniquity. And the flesh that touches any unclean thing shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire: and as for the flesh, all that be clean shall eat thereof." (Lev 7:15-19; 19:5-8)

"You may not eat within your gates the tithe of your corn, or of your wine, or of your oil, or the firstlings of your herds or of your flock, nor any of your vows which you vow, nor your freewill offerings, or heave offering of your hand: But you must eat them before the Lord your God in the place which the Lord your God shall choose, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite that is within your gates: and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God in all that you put your hands unto." (Deut 12:17-18)

Purpose

This set of offerings represents the heart, it is the response to God's goodness and mercy, it is the reflection of the original image of God in man. The Peace offering portrays abundant gratitude, harmony of relationship, freedom from fear of God's wrath, delight in His goodness, rejoicing in spirit (Deut 27:7), and the longing to return thanks in veneration, adoration and love. The Vow aspect proceeds even further to show the desire to act upon these qualities, to go forth to live in a manner reflecting these things and to do things in specific ways.

Insights

The cost of the whole offering and amount of labor required by the person making the offering speak of the depth of heart sincerity in this offering beyond that of any other type of offering. It aptly portrays "consecration," being set apart to love, obey and serve God! Many other offerings require only presenting the animal and putting their hands upon its head to reflect the transfer of obligations to the animal on their behalf–what occurs to the animal should have occurred to the person presenting the offering–death for sin. The Thanksgiving and the Freewill offerings are given from the heart by a sinful person and only these two sacrifices permit that quality to be reflected in the offering itself.

In John 6:48-56 Jesus incorporates the items of the Peace offering into his message about being the bread of life, and needing to eat Him spiritually for life-giving benefit and possessing his indwelling. [See: John 14:27; 16:33; Rom 1:7; 2:10; 8:6; 14:17-19; 15:13, 33; 1 Cor 1:3; 2 Cor 1:2; 13:11; Gal 5:22; Col 3:15; 1 Thes 5:23; 2 Thes 3:16; 2 Pet 3:14] He also brings peace between God and us, and between the Old Covenant and New Covenant people. "Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ" (Rom 5:1); "Grace be with you, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love." (2 John 1:3); "For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace; And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby." (Eph 2:14-16)

This offering has to do with rejoicing and with reaping the benefits of the very thing offered. It must be eaten by the one offering it with their household and friends invited to celebrate, unless they are unclean since this offering is holy to the Lord. (Num 18:19) In the New Testament the alabaster box of ointment, the return of the single leper, the participation of support for Jesus' ministry, the anointing before burial, and the careful burial process show these same attitudes and desires to do things to honor God and Christ Jesus. Since the Old Testament Israelite was promised tangible blessings and prosperity for obedience* to God, the person bringing the larger animal suggests actively seeking spiritual growth or possessing maturity and the person bringing the meager sizes suggests spiritual depravity, weakness or needed growth.

A Thanksgiving offering is looking back at prior benefits in appreciation and it is given one day to rejoice and eat the sacrifice together with those of the household and invited guests. The Vow offering can only look back, (Lev 22:21), since it is offered upon the completion of the vow. (Num 6:1-21)

The Freewill offering, a voluntary praise offering, is looking forward unto all that God is and will do and is given two days to rejoice and eat the sacrifice together with those of the household and invited guests. This is the type of sacrifice that Bethlehem's elders, Jesse and his sons were called unto by Samuel in 1 Samuel 16 and where David is brought forth–looking unto what God will do. [ * See: God Provides Benefits]

Supplement

"What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp, And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offering unto the Lord before the tabernacle of the Lord; blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people: To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they offer in the open field, even that they may bring them unto the Lord, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest, and offer them for peace offerings unto the Lord." (Lev 17:3-5); "But the soul that eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, that pertain unto the Lord, having his uncleanness upon him, even that soul shall be cut off from his people. Moreover the soul that shall touch any unclean thing, as the uncleanness of man, or any unclean beast, or any abominable unclean thing, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which pertain unto the Lord, even that soul shall be cut off from his people." (Lev 7:20-21) [See: Wave and Heave offering; Deut 27:20; 1 Sam 11:15; 2 Sam 6:17-18; 24:25; 2 Chr 7:7; 2 Chr 29:35; 30:32; 31:2; 33:16; Eze 43:27; 45:15-17; 46:2, 12; Amos 5:22]



Offering

Wave and Heave offering, (Lev 2:13) Note: This offering is never given alone but is part of other burnt offerings and part of the consecration of the priests when entering into training at age twenty-five. They are descendents from Aaron and are part of the Levites set apart for God's service. (Num 4:3; 8:24)

Sacrifice

[See: Peace offering, (Lev 7:34)]

Provider

Person providing the offering

Executor

Priest on duty with the person providing the offering

Manner

The terms wave breast and heave shoulder suggest that they are lifted up vertically and moved about horizontally. The wave breast is lifted up and moved about horizontally together with the priest and the heave shoulder is lifted up and down together with the priest. [This makes two directions and forms the cross shape.] "Also you shalt take of the ram the fat and the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder; for it is a ram of consecration. ... And you shalt take the breast of the ram of Aaron's consecration, and wave it for a wave offering before the Lord: and it shall be your part. And you shalt sanctify the breast of the wave offering, and the shoulder of the heave offering, which is waved, and which is heaved up, of the ram of the consecration, even of that which is for Aaron, and of that which is for his sons: And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute for ever from the children of Israel: for it is an heave offering: and it shall be an heave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offerings, even their heave offering unto the Lord." (Exo 29:22, 26-28) When used in consecration of priests, a ram offering (of the sheep, Num 7:88) is required. (Exo 29:22, 26-27, 31; Lev 8:22, 29)

Blood

The priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood, and sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar, sprinkled on four sides of altar, balance poured at the bottom of the altar, (Lev 1:5; 3:2; 8:15; 9:9; Deut 12:27); for fowls "the blood thereof shall be wrung out at the side of the altar." (Lev 1:15) "Only you shall not eat the blood; you shall pour it upon the earth as water." (Deut 12:16)

Details

"And of it he shall offer one out of the whole oblation for an heave offering unto the Lord, and it shall be the priest's that sprinkleth the blood of the peace offerings." (Lev 7:14) "And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, He that offereth the sacrifice of his peace offerings unto the Lord shall bring his oblation unto the Lord of the sacrifice of his peace offerings. His own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord made by fire, the fat with the breast, it shall he bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lord. And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar: but the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons'. And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest for an heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings. He among the sons of Aaron, that offereth the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for his part. For the wave breast and the heave shoulder have I taken of the children of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons by a statute for ever from among the children of Israel" (Lev 7:28-34) "For the wave breast and the heave shoulder have I taken of the children of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons by a statute for ever from among the children of Israel." (Lev 7:34) "And the wave breast and heave shoulder shall you eat in a clean place; thou, and your sons, and your daughters with thee: for they be your due, and your sons' due, which are given out of the sacrifices of peace offerings of the children of Israel. The heave shoulder and the wave breast shall they bring with the offerings made by fire of the fat, to wave it for a wave offering before the Lord; and it shall be thine, and your sons' with thee, by a statute for ever; as the Lord hath commanded." (Lev 10:14-15) "And the priest shall wave them for a wave offering before the Lord: this is holy for the priest, with the wave breast and heave shoulder: and after that the Nazarite may drink wine." (Num 6:20)

"Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When you come into the land whither I bring you, Then it shall be, that, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall offer up an heave offering unto the Lord. you shall offer up a cake of the first of your dough for an heave offering: as you do the heave offering of the threshingfloor, so shall you heave it. Of the first of your dough you shall give unto the Lord an heave offering in your generations." (Num 15:18-21)

"And the Lord spake unto Aaron, Behold, I also have given thee the charge of mine heave offerings of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel; unto thee have I given them by reason of the anointing, and to your sons, by an ordinance for ever." (Num 18:8) "And this is thine; the heave offering of their gift, with all the wave offerings of the children of Israel: I have given them unto thee, and to your sons and to your daughters with thee, by a statute for ever: every one that is clean in your house shall eat of it." (Num 18:11) "All the heave offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the Lord, have I given thee, and your sons and your daughters with thee, by a statute for ever: it is a covenant of salt for ever before the Lord unto thee and to your seed with thee." (Num 18:19) "But the tithes of the children of Israel, which they offer as an heave offering unto the Lord, I have given to the Levites to inherit: therefore I have said unto them, Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance." (Num 18:24)

"Thus speak unto the Levites, and say unto them, When you take of the children of Israel the tithes which I have given you from them for your inheritance, then you shall offer up an heave offering of it for the Lord, even a tenth part of the tithe. And this your heave offering shall be reckoned unto you, as though it were the corn of the threshingfloor, and as the fulness of the winepress. Thus you also shall offer an heave offering unto the Lord of all your tithes, which you receive of the children of Israel; and you shall give thereof the Lord'S heave offering to Aaron the priest. Out of all your gifts you shall offer every heave offering of the Lord, of all the best thereof, even the hallowed part thereof out of it." (Num 18:26-29)

"Take it of their half, and give it unto Eleazar the priest, for an heave offering of the Lord." (Num 31:29) "And Moses gave the tribute, which was the Lord's heave offering, unto Eleazar the priest, as the Lord commanded Moses." (Num 31:41)

"And thither you shall bring your burnt offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and heave offerings of your hand, and your vows, and your freewill offerings, and the firstlings of your herds and of your flocks:" (Deut 12:6) "Then there shall be a place which the Lord your God shall choose to cause his name to dwell there; thither shall you bring all that I command you; your burnt offerings, and your sacrifices, your tithes, and the heave offering of your hand, and all your choice vows which you vow unto the Lord:" (Deut 12:11) "You may not eat within your gates the tithe of your corn, or of your wine, or of your oil, or the firstlings of your herds or of your flock, nor any of your vows which you vow, nor your freewill offerings, or heave offering of your hand." (Deut 12:17) [See also: Burnt offering]

Purpose

This is to present to the Lord the muscled area of the body, that part that "pulls a load," the parts that portray all of the physical strength and desire to labor. The breast and shoulder are at the front of the body and shows the direction that we desire to go in contrast to the hindermost parts that are as an afterthought.

Insights

The lifting vertically and waving about horizontally suggests that this is extending to the Lord the 'chest' of our heart and the desire to keep it ever before Him. The shoulder is a symbol of strength as when you put your shoulder into some difficult work. The right shoulder suggests that we offer and will keep our best strength engaged to do the work of God. It aptly portrays consecration, being lifted up toward God and waved there away from the earth. "And you shalt love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might." (Deut 6:5) "And now, Israel, what doth the Lord your God require of thee, but to fear the Lord your God, to walk in all his ways, and to love him, and to serve the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, To keep the commandments of the Lord, and his statutes, which I command thee this day for your good?" (Deut 10:12-13); "And you shalt love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength: this is the first commandment." (Mark 12:30); "Jesus said unto him, you shalt love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind." (Matt 22:37)

Supplement

(None)



Offering

Jealousy offering, a form of Sin offering (Num 5:12-31; See: Lev 5:11)

Sacrifice

"Then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and he shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is an offering of jealousy, an offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." (Num 5:15)

Provider

Husband

Executor

Priest, husband, wife

Manner

The man shall bring his wife unto the priest, and bring her offering for her, the 1/10 of an ephah of barley meal.

Blood

(None)

Details

The priest shall bring her near, and set her before the Lord, uncover the woman's head, and put the offering of memorial in her hands, and the priest shall have in his hand the bitter water that causeth the curse, the priest shall charge her by an oath that she has not gone aside to uncleanness with another instead of her husband, be free from this bitter water that causes the curse; else: ". . . The Lord make you a curse and an oath among your people, when the Lord does make your thigh to rot, and your belly to swell; And this water that causes the curse shall go into your bowels, to make your belly to swell, and your thigh to rot." (Num 5:16-21) "The priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel; and of the dust that is in the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water: ... And he shall cause the woman to drink the bitter water that causeth the curse: and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her, and become bitter. Then the priest shall take the jealousy offering out of the woman's hand, and shall wave the offering before the Lord, and offer it upon the altar: And the priest shall take an handful of the offering, even the memorial thereof, and burn it upon the altar, and afterward shall cause the woman to drink the water." (Num 5:17, 24-26)

Purpose

This process is to clarify under oath before God the conduct of a man's wife to bring the consequence of her sin, if any, or to bring freedom and healing unto child-bearing. And it establishes that he affirms that he is not party to such conduct himself. "Then shall the man be guiltless from iniquity, and this woman shall bear her iniquity." (Num 5:31)

Insights

Some sins are done very privately and neither party will confess. If there was suspicion, this process was to bring out the truth of the matter. For the Christian, it reminds us that God sees and knows everything, nothing is hidden from Him. We have an advocate with the Father but we must faithfully acknowlege our own sins, confess them and depart from iniquity. "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." (1 John 1:9); "My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments." (1 John 2:1-3)

Supplement

(None)




Special Notes


Who may bring an offering:

The person must be of sufficient age to be accountable, having gone through about 12 years of age and taught right and wrong, and understanding the duties and obligations of the law covenant of God with Israel. Usually this was adults, 20 years and upward, but a younger person in their father's household could get his permission or approval. To bring a Peace or Vow offering before the Lord a youth and female needed their father's permission (Num 30:4-5) and a wife needed her husband's permission (Num 30:7-14). "All that are born of the country shall do these things after this manner, in offering an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. And if a stranger sojourn with you, or whosoever be among you in your generations, and will offer an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord; as you do, so he shall do. One ordinance shall be both for you of the congregation, and also for the stranger that sojourns with you, an ordinance for ever in your generations: as you are, so shall the stranger be before the Lord. One law and one manner shall be for you, and for the stranger that sojourns with you." (Num 15:13-16)


Fat, caul above the liver and kidney from the animal:

The requirement for each person giving the anmial sacrifice to "lay his hand upon the animal's head" means that the person emphasizes that this ceremony applies to himself, that the death of the animal (death by bloodshed and destruction by burning) properly belongs to himself as the penalty for sin. The fat of the animal sacrifice (which represents the person making the offering) is always to be offered to God and burned upon the altar. Fat suggests the love of the innermost being, their zeal toward God. Burning fat increases the intensity of the fire and suggests great love and zeal. The only two choices are to offer our love and zeal to God in true worship or keep it for ourself and/or for other things which is idolatry (Exo 20:3; Deut 5:7; 1 Kgs 9:6-7). The liver and kidneys are organs of cleansing with the liver recycling organic materials into re-usable components and the kidney removing unusable waste compounds. The caul above the liver and kidney from the animal may therefore suggest the reformed conscience and the discrimination of righteousness which is necessary to please the Lord. "And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void to offence toward God, and toward men." (Acts 24:16); "I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost." (Rom 9:1); "For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward." (2 Cor 1:12); "Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned." (1 Tim 1:5); "Holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience." (1 Tim 3:9); "How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?" (Heb 9:14); "Neither yield ye your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto God." (Rom 6:13); "That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit." (Rom 8:4); "For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost." (Rom 14:17); "Awake to righteousness, and sin not; for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak this to your shame." (1 Cor 15:34); "And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness." (Eph 4:24); "But thou, O man of God, flee these things; and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness." (1 Tim 6:11); "Flee also youthful lusts: but follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart." (); "" (2 Tim 2:22); "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." (2 Tim 3:16)

"And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul that is above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and burn them upon the altar." (Exo 29:13); "And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. And the priest shall burn them upon the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire for a sweet savour: all the fat is the Lord's. It shall be a perpetual statute for your generations throughout all your dwellings, that ye eat neither fat nor blood." (Lev 3:15-17); And he shall take off from it all the fat of the bullock for the sin offering; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away, As it was taken off from the bullock of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall burn them upon the altar of the burnt offering. (Lev 4:8-10); "And he shall offer of it all the fat thereof; the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks, and the caul that is above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away: And the priest shall burn them upon the altar for an offering made by fire unto the Lord: it is a trespass offering." (Lev 7:3-5); "What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp, And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offering unto the Lord before the tabernacle of the Lord; blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people: To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they offer in the open field, even that they may bring them unto the Lord, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest, and offer them for peace offerings unto the Lord. And the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and burn the fat for a sweet savour unto the Lord. And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, after whom they have gone a whoring. This shall be a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations. ... And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace offering an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat thereof, and the whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the backbone; and the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. And the priest shall burn it upon the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire unto the Lord. ... And he shall offer thereof his offering, even an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. And the priest shall burn them upon the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire for a sweet savour: all the fat is the Lord's." (Lev 17:3-7, 9-11, 14-16); "But the firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy: thou shalt sprinkle their blood upon the altar, and shalt burn their fat for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the Lord." (Num 18:17)

For a Sin offering: "And he shall take all his fat from him, and burn it upon the altar. ... And he shall burn all his fat upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall make an atonement for him as concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him. ... And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace offerings; and the priest shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the Lord; and the priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him. ... And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of the peace offerings; and the priest shall burn them upon the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the Lord: and the priest shall make an atonement for his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven him." (Lev 4:19, 26, 31, 35); "And he shall offer of it all the fat thereof; the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks, and the caul that is above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away: And the priest shall burn them upon the altar for an offering made by fire unto the Lord: it is a trespass offering." (Lev 7:3-5); "But the fat, and the kidneys, and the caul above the liver of the sin offering, he burnt upon the altar; as the Lord commanded Moses." (Lev 9:10); "And the fat of the sin offering shall he burn upon the altar." (Lev 16:25)


Wood:

Burning sacrificed animal carcasses required much wood and time. A steady supply of wood was necessary for the continual fire upon the altar sufficient to burn the sacrifices to ashes. "And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay the wood in order upon the fire. And the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat, in order upon the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar. ... And he shall cut it into his pieces, with his head and his fat: and the priest shall lay them in order on the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar." (Lev 1:7-8, 12) "And the fire upon the altar shall be burning in it; it shall not be put out: and the priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt offering in order upon it; and he shall burn thereon the fat of the peace offerings." (Lev 6:12) "Keep therefore the words of this covenant, and do them, that ye may prosper in all that ye do. Ye stand this day all of you before the Lord your God; your captains of your tribes, your elders, and your officers, with all the men of Israel, Your little ones, your wives, and thy stranger that is in thy camp, from the hewer of thy wood unto the drawer of thy water." (Deut 29:9-11)

After entering into Caanan this work of gathering and bringing in the necessary wood and water was done by the Hivites: the inhabitants of "Gibeon, and Chephirah, and Beeroth, and Kirjathjearim." (Josh 9:17) "And the princes said unto them, Let them live; but let them be hewers of wood and drawers of water unto all the congregation; as the princes had promised them. And Joshua called for them, and he spake unto them, saying, Wherefore have ye beguiled us, saying, We are very far from you; when ye dwell among us? Now therefore ye are cursed, and there shall none of you be freed from being bondmen, and hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of my God. ... And Joshua made them that day hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, and for the altar of the Lord, even unto this day, in the place which he should choose." (Josh 9:21-23, 27)


Trumpets:

The Trumpet was used at the initiation of the Law Covenant with Israel. "There shall not an hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live: when the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount." (Exo 19:13); "And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that was in the camp trembled." (Exo 19:16) "And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice." (Exo 19:19) "And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the people saw it, they removed, and stood afar off." (Exo 20:18)

Israel was commanded to "Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps. And when they shall blow with them, all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee." (Lev 10:2-4) "Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, you shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord your God." (Num 10:10); "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation." (Lev 23:24); "And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work: it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you." (Num 29:1) This establishes 3 specific times to use the trumpets with sacrifices: "the day of your gladness" - peace offerings and celebration days, "and in your solemn days" - the day of atonement, "and in the beginnings of your months" - New Moon days.

Therefor the continued use of blowing trumpets over the sacrifices in the beginning of the months, the New Moon sacrifices, reminds Israel to hold to, maintain and fulfill their covenant duties in both their daily living as well as in their offerings to the Lord. Their use in the peace offerings and celebration days calls out and affirms the benefits the Israelites receive when living under the law of God and in relationship to Him. [See: God Provides Benefits] "Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubile to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land." (Lev 25:9) The trumpet use in the the day of atonement reminds Israel of their continual need to seek God and maintain a holy relationship of peace and reconciliation, one that greatly benefits them. (Deut 27-28 chpt) This is specially asked of Israel, "For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the Lord our God is in all things that we call upon him for? And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?" (Deut 4:7-8) [Trumpets were blown for: the giving of the law at Sinai (Exo 19 & 20), calling the assembly or leaders (Num 10:2-4; 2 Sam 6:15), calling to battle in war (Num 10:9; Joshua 6:4, Judg 7:18; Neh 4:20), offering peace offerings (Num 10:10; 2 Chr 5:12-13, 7:6), announcing the jubilee (Lev 25:9), announcing the day of atonement sacrifice (Lev 23:24; Num 29:1), a memorial of the New Moon (Num 10:10; Psa 81:13), announcing the inauguration of a king (1 Kgs 1:34), and rejoicing (2 Chr 20:28; 23:13; 29:26-28; Ezra 3:10; etc.).

So Moses continues to encourage their faithfulness, "Only take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the things which thine eyes have seen, and lest they depart from thy heart all the days of thy life: but teach them thy sons, and thy sons' sons; Specially the day that thou stoodest before the Lord thy God in Horeb, when the Lord said unto me, Gather me the people together, and I will make them hear my words, that they may learn to fear me all the days that they shall live upon the earth, and that they may teach their children. And ye came near and stood under the mountain; and the mountain burned with fire unto the midst of heaven, with darkness, clouds, and thick darkness. And the Lord spake unto you out of the midst of the fire: ye heard the voice of the words, but saw no similitude; only ye heard a voice. And he declared unto you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even ten commandments; and he wrote them upon two tables of stone. And the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and judgments, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it." (Deut 4:9-14) [See: Trumpets]


Measures:

"Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall you have: I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt." (Lev 19:36); "The ephah and the bath shall be of one measure, that the bath may contain the tenth part of an homer, and the ephah the tenth part of an homer: the measure thereof shall be after the homer." Eze 45:11


Deal (dry measure) [unknown equivalence]

Bath* = the liquid equivalent of the Ephah for volume

Bath (wet measure) 1 homer = 1 cor = 10 baths or 1/10 homer = 1 bath

Ephah (dry measure) 1 homer = 10 ephahs or 1/10 homer = 1 ephah

Hin (wet or liquid measure) 6 hin = 1 bath or 1 hin = 1/6 bath

* "the bath may be archaeologically determined to have been about 5.75 U.S. gallons (22 liters) from a study of jar remains marked 'bath' and 'royal bath' from Tell Beit Mirsim"
"In the Israelite system, the term log is used in place of the Babylonian mina .../... about 0.505 litres." from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_and_Talmudic_units_of_measurement and http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14821-weights-and-measures]

Other sources: http://www.convert-me.com/en/convert/history_volume/bibephah.html and http://www.conservapedia.com/Biblical_units_of_measure suggest that the ephah is ≅ 22 liters or 5.8 gallons U.S. measure which makes the log at ≅ 0.305 liters, both of which are 60.4% of the larger volume.


Thus 1 "log" of about 0.505 liter compares to about 1/72 of an ephah, and 1 ephah = 1 bath = 72 logs. This is about 36.36 liters volume (about 9.6 gallons U.S. measure) for 1 ephah or 1 bath. Then since 1 bath = 6 hin: 1 hin ≅ 6.1 liters or 1.6 gallons (25.6 cups); 1/2 hin ≅ 3.3 liters or 0.8 gallons (12.8 cups); 1/3 hin ≅ 2.02 liters or 0.53 gallons (8.5 cups) and 1/4 hin ≅ 1.5 liters or 0.4 gallons (6.4 cups) volume.

With 9.6 gallons U.S. measure (36.36 liters) for 1 bath or 1 ephah, this may mean that 1/10 deal of grain is about 0.96 gallons U.S. (3.64 liters) or even much less volume. This size would make the text in Leviticus 23:17 suggest super-sized loaves of bread. "You shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals; they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baked with leaven; they are the firstfruits unto the Lord." Likewise in Leviticus 24:5-6, they would be extremely large loaves for the golden table in the holy sanctuary. "And you shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof: two tenth deals shall be in one cake. And you shalt set them in two rows, six on a row, upon the pure table before the Lord." This very huge size could do a very good job of feeding David and his men in 1 Samuel 21:1-6 but does not fit with 2 Samuel 16:1.

So the "deal" as a unit of dry measure may be smaller in size than 9.6 gallons U.S. measure and probably is even smaller than 1/2 to 1/3 of that size. Using 1/3 of the bath for a deal and taking 1/10th of that (9.6/30 x 16 cups per gallon) = 5.1 cups or 1.2 liters of flour. Thus two 1/10 deals would be 10.2 cups or 2.4 liters. That is a workable size for a quite large unleavened loaf. Again using 1/4 of the bath (or ephah) for a deal and taking 1/10th of that (9.6/40 x 16 cups per gallon) = 3.8 cups or 0.91 liters of flour. That is also a workable size for a quite large loaf. [For the 22 liter ephah compared to the 36.36 liter ephah adjust these and the following to 60.4% of the volume.]

If the deal is the dry measure of equal volume to one hin (1/6 of an bath) of wet measure then the size of a deal is about 6.1 liters or 1.6 gallons (6.3 quarts or 25.6 cups) U.S. measure of flour. Thus the "wave loaves of two tenth deals" each (Lev 23:17) would be large-sized loafs of unleavened bread made from ≅ 1.2 liters or 7.9 cups U.S. measure of flour. This is most likely the smallest possible size of the deal dry measure, where 1 deal = 1 hin in volume. The text in Numbers 15:8-9 says, "And when thou preparest a bullock for a burnt offering, or for a sacrifice in performing a vow, or peace offerings unto the Lord: Then shall he bring with a bullock a meat [meal] offering of three tenth deals of flour mingled with half an hin of oil." It would be strange to have more oil than flour — 1/2 hin oil to 3/10 deal (3/10 hin in size) of flour. This text alone suggests that the deal is larger in size than 1 hin in volume. See: Meal (grain) offering. Thus if the deal is the dry measure of equal volume to one hin, then "two tenth deals" would be in volume somewhat smaller than the size for the Drink offering which required 1/2, 1/3 or 1/4 hin of wine depending upon the basic animal size. Remember that the "wave loaves of two tenth deals" of unleavened bread would be the same size as each loaf of shewbread placed upon the gold table in the holy place. (Lev 24:5-6) If the loaves are too big they do not fit on the table surface of two cubits x one cubit along with the numerous other items. If they are small or "stingy" it implies meager provision of "spiritual food" given to the priests each Sabbath who, in turn, are a type of Christ's church. So the exact size of the "deal" measure is unknown but suggests itself to be less than 9.6 gallons U.S. or 36.36 liters volume.


Tithes:

Tithes come from: grains, fruits, herbs, nuts, seeds, vineyards, etc. "And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the Lord's: it is holy unto the Lord. And if a man will at all redeem any of his tithes, he shall add unto it the fifth part more. And concerning the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, even of whatsoever passes under the rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the Lord." (Lev 27:30-32) "But unto the place which the Lord your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put his name there, even unto his habitation shall you seek, and thither you shalt come: And thither you shall bring your burnt offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and heave offerings of your hand, and your vows, and your freewill offerings, and the firstlings of your herds and of your flocks: And there you shall eat before the Lord your God, and you shall rejoice in all that you put your hand unto, you and your households, wherein the Lord your God has blessed thee." (Deut 12:5-7); "When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithes of thine increase the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be filled; Then thou shalt say before the Lord thy God, I have brought away the hallowed things out of mine house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all thy commandments which thou hast commanded me: I have not transgressed thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them. I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I taken away ought thereof for any unclean use, nor given ought thereof for the dead: but I have hearkened to the voice of the Lord my God, and have done according to all that thou hast commanded me. Look down from thy holy habitation, from heaven, and bless thy people Israel, and the land which thou hast given us, as thou swarest unto our fathers, a land that floweth with milk and honey." (Deut 26:12-15; 26:1-15)

"And the Levite that is within your gates; you shalt not forsake him; for he hath no part nor inheritance with thee. At the end of three years you shall bring forth all the tithe of your increase the same year, and shalt lay it up within your gates: And the Levite, (because he has no part nor inheritance with you,) and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, which are within your gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the Lord your God may bless you in all the work of your hand which you do." (Deut 14:27-29)

"And now, behold, I have brought the firstfruits of the land, which you, O Lord, have given me. And you shalt set it before the Lord your God, and worship before the Lord your God: And you shall rejoice in every good thing which the Lord your God has given unto you, and unto your house, you, and the Levite, and the stranger that is among you. When you have made an end of tithing all the tithes of your increase the third year, which is the year of tithing, and have given it unto the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, that they may eat within your gates, and be filled; Then you shall say before the Lord your God, I have brought away the hallowed things out of mine house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all your commandments which you have commanded me: I have not transgressed your commandments, neither have I forgotten them." (Deut 26:10-13)


Tending the Brasen (copper) Altar:

"Command Aaron and his sons, saying, This is the law of the burnt offering: It is the burnt offering, because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall be burning in it. And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which the fire hath consumed with the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar. And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place. And "the fire upon the altar shall be burning in it; it shall not be put out: and the priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt offering in order upon it; and he shall burn thereon the fat of the peace offerings." (Lev 6:9-12)

The animal is killed on the north side of the altar before the Lord. "And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the Lord: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall sprinkle his blood round about upon the altar." (Lev 1:11) [East is the front side with the court gate, and when entering the people face westward, making the north side the right-hand side of the altar. (Num 3:23, 38; 2 Kgs 12:9; CP. Eze 8:16; 10:3; 47:10; Luke 1:11)]

"And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and wring off his head, and burn it on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be wrung out at the (north) side of the altar: And he shall pluck away his crop with his feathers, and cast it beside the altar on the east part, by the place of the ashes." (Lev 1:15-16)

"And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which the fire hath consumed with the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar. And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place." (Lev 6:10-11)

"Even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn him on the wood with fire: where the ashes are poured out shall he be burnt." (Lev 4:12)

"Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, saying, This is the law of the sin offering: In the place where the burnt offering is killed shall the sin offering be killed before the Lord: it is most holy." (Lev 6:25)

"And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar." (Lev 4:34, 7, 18, 25, 30)

[Afterward he brought me again unto the door of the house; and, behold, waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward: for the forefront of the house stood toward the east, and the waters came down from under from the right side of the house, at the south side of the altar [when facing eastward]. (Eze 47:1)]


God Provides Benefits:

"I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life, that both thou and thy seed may live." (Deut 30:19) "And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites." (Exo 3:8); "And they spake unto all the company of the children of Israel, saying, The land, which we passed through to search it, is an exceeding good land. If the Lord delight in us, then he will bring us into this land, and give it us; a land which floweth with milk and honey." (Num 14:7-8); "And it shall be, when the Lord thy God shall have brought thee into the land which he sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give thee great and goodly cities, which thou buildedst not, And houses full of all good things, which thou filledst not, and wells digged, which thou diggedst not, vineyards and olive trees, which thou plantedst not; when thou shalt have eaten and be full" (Deut 6:10-11); "Therefore thou shalt keep the commandments of the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, and to fear him. For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey; A land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass. When thou hast eaten and art full, then thou shalt bless the Lord thy God for the good land which he hath given thee." (Deut 8:6-10) These include: release from bondage in Egypt (Exo 13:3); protection from Pharaoh's army (Exo 14:14-28); statutes and judgments and laws (Lev 26:46); beneficial land (Exo 13:5; Deut 4:38; 8:10; 19:8); health and well-being, protection from disease and plagues (Exo 15:26; Deut 7:13-15); protection during 3 annual feasts (Exo 34:23-24); prepared dwellings, vineyards, trees in which to dwell (Deut 20:16; Josh 24:13); financial well-being (Deut 28:3-6, 11); healthy gestation for man and livestock, numerous children (Exo 23:26; Deut 28:11); long lives (Exo 23:26; Lev 19:32); early and latter rains (Lev 26:4; Deut 11:14); lender to others (Deut 28:12); relationship with God, response to prayer (Exo 22:27; Deut 4:7); esteemed by other nations and peoples (Deut 26:19; 28:10, 13); drive out enemies from the land by bee and hornet (Exo 23:28-31); victory over enemies (Exo 23:27; Deut 4:38; 7:24; 11:25; 28:7; Josh 23:9); abundant fruitfulness and privilege (Deut 28:1-13); et cetera.




See: Generally Accepted Types; Examples, Types, Shadows and More; Levitical Installation Sacrifices; Purpose for the Tabernacle; Tabernacle Symbols and Types; Types and Shadows are Important and Titles and Descriptions of Jesus Christ